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ɹпɱ ﷢̺

ʾأⷽҲǸдķңҡβ˹ķһ̺ӣ漴Ⱥڵ׳۳档ٿǵȻࡣ

ժԡǧʷѪʮ֡ߣ䣬棺

䲻٣ΰΰԾɵθյĹͻȣλϸ䱳ΰ

̵ְȶɺ£ͻȨ

ͻȵ꾭֪д˵ƣɹūһūӿУȶϼأͻԳǻģ۹ǸԲеĦڭĩĺ⵹еԼ˼

[ǵ]

1258꣬ͻյһţдŵIJDZˣͷ

ȷָɹڽ2Ѫϴ͸﷢ȫ˹ֽ¾ɹ˰ìͷ׼ǣɹͳ˧дšȻǵˣⳡڽ̽ѣϣ²ǰӣɱԮѽɵ

ѪţͻȲһɹ

ͻ᧿Σ͸˵*⵽ǰδеսڰҪһλܹһΣϸְյ

˴۾ɹȻ˹ͻȴλĽڡ

1259꣬ͻȷյ֮λ

ְ˵ͻϸҲ˳һ䣺ֻҪɹˣȿˣ˾Թԡ

˵ЩɶãȨգ˭˵֣

[ɹ]

˵ɹ͵˵˵ɸĵܡأ

أһӢսѪ溺ӣͳ˧Ѫϴ͸дŵҲ

ڼǰɸ´ݻϲ˹Ȩּ⣬һľأǺ˽٩

ɸ־ڱصã۹ÿʮ̵ܴһʱž۳ɾӡ

ǰ(1256)أڲ˹ͳζһضС

أʴӲ˹ƺƵ˹ķյ-ȵͳͳأ£Ϊĸӹ

սɹ⣬ӹҲأʮ

⣬أ(artillery)ЩԲκûô󣬵Գǽһƻãըףؾ־ĥ

أսݣ㶨סڲ˹ϲ¬(Lurs)

12561215գλ쵼ͷʹɱּŰأɨɹŴܲճȻʮ¶ճελȻɥʧ

ڰĴιлһʹص֯ء

[Ѫϴ͸]

أһĿΪ*ġ͸

͸*۹˹׶λȽ̻ʵĹ﷢֮ء

ʢһʱİ˹Ӳд˿ڹǰ͸˿ٵÿؾˣɹŴ֮һ

ܹ﷢ͻǵĿܣʼûɫ͸ȻһĻŨijУʼһĻijС

Ȼ1258꣬أڰ͸£ù﷢ͷγΪҵĴʡ

ɸأ﷢Ը⳼ɹŵ۹ͲҪ۹أ󺹸Ľ̻壬ٽ͸ʱҪ﷢˹ķͶ

ǺͰѪƴʱ˹ķĹɹŴ¡ĵʵȻû״ڴأУ˹ķ˺ܶðأĴʻ㣬м*ĹҲ˵أ߳ŭСӵƣҪúÿ

˹ķѼӣӲû׼ûӣҲûǿǷ¡

֮£أзѾӲڵ׸˹԰͸﷢ǯιơ

*˴Сɹž̶֥Сʤ˹ķԣɹûʲôµġ뷨ձijԴʹڳɱϢ

˹ķŵûɢһƨڵϣ˼û˼ԴհһƬ

129գɹžڳ޽դͺ͸ŰΧ

йؾе;ֵľЩǾˣôЩһһ*棬͸Ͽվͻ裬սǾʵַأ

ˣԺѧᣬԽԽȫɱǧ֮⡢֮С

ԭӵĢдɱȫ԰һ˿ڹijдӵĨ

ţ˹̹˵һ䡰סľԣҲ֪սʲôҸҿ϶Ĵսʯͷľ

ΧԺ󣬰͸һγǽ̮ɹžӵ롣ڰݿ״̬˹ķͶΪʱأջ롣

213գɹʿ˹ķൽأǰأ¶ɯص΢Ц﷢ϵܣ˧㿴Ϸ

һڵĴɱڰ͸ݣ˹ķȹۿɹʿļ˷ӣɱ˷Ż𡢴ݻٽ*Ů״Ѫϴʿ̹

أϱǾͽ(***һ)Ӱ£ͽҵû˹⡣

͸ﵽ˶ˣʵûж˵پ򣬻пż¼˵һ֮ʬҰݺš

ɻɽİ͸ƮʬأűӸϽӪӪϷ紦

*Ѫ޽ĺ֮һ棬¡ҽԺͳͳݻ١

ǻ۹ݣʷϺ鼮ĴͼҲû⣬Ҵ߳ƣɢڵ׸˹ͼī֭ѺˮȾˡ

͸һϡ١һijУ״̬˼ꡣİ͸ûʱķòʵϧ

[˹ķIJ]

ڲкͬ෽ȱٴ⣬ʮȲ˵ˣƳˡĸѶƹ͹˴Ŀĵġ

أⷽҲǸдķңҡβ˹ķһ̺ӣ漴Ⱥڵ׳۳档ٿǵĹ﷢Ȼࡣ

м˵أ﷢鱦֮̾࣬һ˹ķĶơ

أ˹ķؽװСݣԡ㲻ϲ鱦𣬶ͳǰɡû죬˹ķͱɶ

˹ķıֻһһDz͵ɹŴԭɹʷѧҼأɹȢӣôûĩ﷢

Ű͸ɲԫϱڣ˹*۹ɹŴ¡¡ߵͷΪµ

[ɹ˵Ӱ]

Ϊ͸أж൱˺ӣ˺û޸ʹǵũҵ⵽ƻ˲DzɱأͶ½ʹũҵһķϡ(A History of Inner Asia)

͸ɲԫϱڣɸ*統ͷһ⵽شҲľ޴ʧ

͸һԺأ˹־(Juvayni)ܹܰ͸Ǻͺ˹̹ʡλ־᲻DZˣǾʷߡ

[۹ĻԻ]

˹ġҽѧѧгɾ͡910ͣѧ񣬲ʷκʱڶࡣӢ߿•ķ˹(Karen Armstrong,1944񣬴A History of God)԰˹ۡ

Ű˹ӴʿǨ͸𽥲ƽʱ(Islamic Golden Age)ƽʱֳո(Islamic Renaissance)ֹʱ913ִ͡ѧΪһʱ15ͣɼӰ֮֮㡣

𵽶ĻתվãԹйӡȡ˹ϣͰռͥĻ֪ʶ¯㼯ϳɺͷչ

˹֮ijɾͣӦøл˹ŵ˼ʶ*ȣ˹ؽ˹ֵ֧֣˹ĹģʽҲֵЧ²˹ɺ

һλ˹﷢(ĸDz˹)˵

ڲ˹ͳεǧDzҪ*ˣͳβ˹һ꣬ȴһʱһ̶벻ǡ

һʱڣ˹ڿѧѧҽѧͽijɾʮ

귭˶Уѧǰص֪ʶ磬ܶ༴ʧĹŴƷںͲ˹ͻϣ硣

˹˼ҺͿѧڰѿѧ***аŹؼԽɫ

ѧ棬˹֤κ֪ʶĸˡ˹ѧҰ•ģ(al-Khwarizmi)оΪ֮ӢһalgebraҲǴıݻ

ҽѧĽҲ൱Ѹͣ9ͣ͸һа˰ٶҽ˹ֶԽʺ߲оվǰأҽѾܹͨٴ(measles)컨(allpox)

˹ҽѧҰάɭ(icenna,ĽзΪIbn Sina)ʱʽܽҽѧϻ۵֪ʶ;飬дɾҽ䡷(The Canon of Medicine)֮͡顷(The Book of Healing)

ͷӮáִҽѧ֮ijƺţͬʱҲӰŷҽѧԼйҽѧ

йһ޴׾Ǵҽ鴫йҽ䡷һ

ݡԪʷأҽ䡷ҽղйҵݡԪࡣġػҩǺԪ˹ҽѡҽ䡷ҽ鷭ɵġ

ڻѧ棬˹ֻѧҺʿɫǵĹӰִѧķչӰ˴ʦţ٣һЩѧΪ˹ֻѧִѧĵˡ

ڻѧӰ˹٤(Geber,˵ļӷJabir ibn Hayyan)Ϊǡѧ֮

ѧ棬С˵Īڳ9͵ġ췽ҹ̷(The Book of One Thousand and One Nightsһǧһҹһ˵ƣγһḶֱ́14ͲնΣͬ汾ĹҲͬ)Ͱͺʮơʹﺽ˿ڵĹ°ǴǸħʱ

ѧ棬һֵùעǡѧĶкܶ汾һϵĶǡĻڲѧʽ

ܶ벻ǣѧԴڹϣѧʦʿ¡˹ѧڽϣѧ磬ŷ޹аŹؼԽɫ

άɭɲλҽѧңλѧҡλ˼Ұ•ϵ(al-Kindi)•(al-Farabi)ʿѧ(Aristoteliani)°ͼѧ(Neoplatoni)ѧ˼ܵ硣

˼ﻥںϡӽάɭ塱(icenni)һ̽˶

ڿƼ棬˹ֲйֽи˽ֽ˹ѧֽŷ˲ֽ֪Ǹʲô

ڻҩҲͨ˹ִ֮ģ˹ָǿ(pure potassium nitrate)䷽ȴͳĺڻҩ

ũҵ棬ʡٵȸɹˮ˹ֲֵ԰˵ŷޣӰ죬ŷҲ𽥿ʼֲ

ڹҵ棬˹Ѿ֪óϫʯ(petroleum)ȻԴڵĴ͹ڹҵѾ߳Ρ

˹ˮ׷ݵ7ͣˮ9;͵õձӦá˹ֹʦ(crankshaft)ˮֻ(water turbine)óˮ

˹ˮˮŷ磬ŷ޵ũҵĸ޴Ӱ졣11ңŷ޲𽥾йҵʶŷ޵ĵһ11ͣǰϣġ

ó棬˿ӡľóһֱ16ֳߵ

кҲ˹ֳܵóеҪڵ㣬˴ó⣬˹ֹһ͵жԵ˹ǵŷ޹̡ͨλ˿֮·ϵ˹ֹҸйŷ޲ɻȱŦ

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      ô˵ʵûʲô˼ŶǽȨȨΪԼΪԼܣȻ㲻Ը˵ﻰУұô룡㲻룺ڣôõ𣿳ˣһˣųꡣdzģdzͷľٶ......

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