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帖子主题:希腊伪史论的关键六点,驳斥北大高峰风的“学术义和团”一文(转载)

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希腊伪史论的关键六点,驳斥北大高峰风的“学术义和团”一文(转载)

何新:希腊伪史论的关键六点

北大高峰风的“学术义和团”一文,对我在《希腊伪史考》一书中所阐述而必须理清的一些基本概念问题刻意回避,却闲扯一些鸡毛蒜皮无关紧要的琐碎细节,貌似颇有学问,其实屁也不是。其主要方法是攻其一点,不及其余;这是一种诡辩之术!

最有趣的是,高文有意捏造一些我没有的愚蠢论点和错误——竖起一堆稻草人,然后引弓射箭,大加挞伐,标标命中,然后即得意满满地宣称老何很无知,缺少基本知识,获胜凯旋。

我掩鼻读完其臭文,不禁莞尔而笑——这傻玩意,留洋归来学会了用文字栽赃的本领。难怪对洋人的作伪术五体投地呢!北京大学现在竟然有手腕这么卑劣、水准这么下三烂的海归博士?

但是,他说我的《希腊伪史考》书中有排印以及某些方面的疏忽与错误。可能,难免。

我近年患病,精力有限,没办法亲自校书。也很高兴留点缺陷给假洋鬼子去挑刺批驳,让他们心理得到一点平衡,以抚慰一下他们内心的自卑、嫉妒、恨,这也不错。当然,出新版时一些细节问题会予以校正。

下面就谈谈希腊伪史问题的真正的要害所在。

希腊伪史论的关键六点

希腊文明真伪问题的关键,在于以下六个方面。这是一切狡猾的洋鬼子和假洋鬼子所一向精心回避,绝对不敢正面回应的要害之所在:

一、历史中从不存在什么“希腊国”、“希腊文化”

其实,我立论批判希腊伪文化和伪史的关键论点是基于以下4点:

1、有人以为希腊是一个国家。实际上,希腊在19世纪发生摆脱奥斯曼土耳其统治的希腊独立运动之前,历史上的希腊半岛上从来没有形成一个统一、独立、自主、名字叫“希腊”的主权国家,也从来不存在一个以雅典为中心的”辉煌“的古希腊文化!

2、由于古代的希腊从来没有形成统一的国家,所以希腊也从来没有形成独立的主权,没有王权、王朝和希腊国王。

在历史的多数时期。希腊半岛的部分或全体,曾经隶属于波斯、马其顿帝国、罗马帝国和东罗马帝国,后来隶属于奥斯曼土耳其帝国。但是,历史上的希腊半岛及周边区域,从来没有作为一个什么“大希腊殖民帝国”而存在过。

[请注意:这里强调的并不是一个叫”希腊“或别的名称的国家和文化是否存在,而是作为一个主体国家和文化的”希腊“——在全部历史中根本不存在。所谓的希腊文化,是西方近代史学及考古所虚构造型出来的一个民主乌托邦。]

3、在亚历山大征服希腊半岛以前,希腊半岛仅仅存在一些经济和文化极其落后的小城邦,如雅典、斯巴达。雅典城邦的全盛时期也只有2—10万左右的总人口。实际上这一数字也是高估的。

[古典时代雅典城邦公民人口总数在2—3万左右,加上周边农村及奴隶,总人口在10万人左右。(此据希腊史学者王大庆及解光云的推算)]

希腊是个多山国,地理条件恶劣,至今极为贫困,各城邦之间交通不变,互相联系很少。由于历史中没有统一的希腊王国或帝国,也没有存在过什么统一的希腊军队。这个半岛上任何小城邦的统治者,其治权从来没有超越小城邦的狭窄区域。

4、因此,历来被传说和膜拜的所谓“伟大的史前希腊史”,只是文艺复兴以后的西方人根据来历不明的“荷马史诗”,利用涵义模糊不清的“希腊”这个概念,所虚构、编造出来的一系列传说和神话故事。在历史中从来没有真实存在过。

其实,任何人要驳倒我的希腊伪史论,只须首先反驳以上4点,从而证明在1832年以前世界上确实曾经有一个希腊王国或者希腊王朝,或者希腊殖民帝国,或者“希腊民主联邦国”存在过——证明作为一种政治制度和文化载体,希腊国家与希腊民族曾经在何年何地存在过,那么我的希腊伪史论自然就不能成立,人们就可以把所有的伟大和光荣都归于这个政治及文化的实体。

但是,如果历史上根本找不到这样一个希腊国作为希腊文明的历史实体和文明主体而存在——那么我们就不知道统一的希腊民族和文化究竟寄存在哪里。就不得不承认,迄今中外希腊粉丝所有关于“古希腊历史文明”如何辉煌伟大的神话,都是在扯淡!

二、荷马是亚洲人,荷马史诗不是希腊的史诗

荷马史诗出身可疑,来历不明。

荷马究竟是哪里人,是哪国人?如果世界上根本没有希腊国存在,那么荷马也就当然不是希腊人。难道荷马是没有国籍的世界公民?

荷马是希腊半岛本土的欧洲人吗?不是。其实,一向被称为希腊伟大诗人的荷马,并不是欧洲的希腊人而是亚洲人——小亚细亚人。

有意思的问题是,如果当时世界上根本没有希腊国的存在,那又凭什么说荷马的作品都是关于希腊的神话和史诗呢???

实际上,荷马到底是谁,什么时代的人,甚至是男人还是女人,一个人还是一群人?——这些问题至今西方学界也没有弄清楚,没有定论!可是,现今全部希腊史前史,却都是根据说不清、也道不白的荷马史诗和神话编造、杜撰出来的!

[号称曾经藏有荷马此书唯一原本的亚历山大图书馆,早在公元初年据说就被战乱毁灭了,据说片纸无存。而英国19世纪桑兹的《西方古典学术史》,被高某大肆吹捧。你吹个屁啊,那本书就是西人自己给伪造的西方历史堵窟窿的书,书中鬼话连篇,谎话连篇!譬如亚历山大图书馆,桑兹说没有被烧——这其实就是在抽英国希腊罗马祖师爷吉本的大嘴巴!

其实亚历山大图书馆,就连它到底存在不存在,可能不可能存在——在西方历史学中还有争议,至今也还是个问题。西方古代无信史!文艺复兴后在西方突然冒出来的那些希腊罗马著作——多数至今无法定论其文本真伪。]

高某文中详细地列举了某些英国人关于荷马史诗的说法,宣称在埃及纸草残片中得到了一系列发现。本人不是荷马版本学家,目前暂且无意讨论这些所谓的埃及纸草版荷马的真伪问题。我只想说,这些纸草帮助不了希腊伪史制造者什么忙。

荷马史诗的主要内容是关于“阿凯亚人”攻打伊利昂城的传说。但是,这一战争并不是发生在希腊半岛上,也不是什么“希腊人”的战争。既然希腊国本身是一个子虚乌有之邦,那么又哪里来的希腊人对外国人的战争呢?荷马说的“阿凯亚人”,其实是亚洲人(爱奥尼亚——小亚细亚)人,而不是希腊半岛或者雅典希腊的欧洲人。

从过去一世纪间的西方考古学看,都认为荷马史诗中描写的战争发生在地中海东岸的亚洲、小亚细亚。(如19世纪末,德国学者施里曼在小亚细亚西岸的希萨里克发掘一座古城的遗址,认为这个古城就是古代特洛伊人的都城伊利昂。)

总之荷马史诗与所谓的希腊半岛历史——特别是雅典希腊历史,并无关系。说荷马诗篇是关于希腊人的史诗,叫做驴唇不对马嘴。

三、克里特、迈锡尼文明本不属于希腊

有人说,希腊考古有克里特和迈锡尼文化的发现。请问公元前3000年——1000年当时世界上有“希腊”这个国家存在吗?

如果没有,凭什么把这两个独立自生的岛屿古文化,归属于当时根本不存在的古希腊呢?有人说是根据荷马的神话故事——这不是放屁吗?!如果荷马神话可以用来证史,那么西游记、封神榜也都可以进中国历史作为教科书了!

所谓的克里特和麦锡尼考古,虽然出土物也许未必全是假的——但被西方学者揭露质疑的假古董确实也有不少。(例如那些画图精美的陶罐就大有可疑——因为当时全人类都还没有那种彩陶烧制和绘画的技术。)至于那个牛头人身的妖怪克里特国王米诺斯,则肯定100%是假货。那些什么泥版线性文字A/B——居然都是一个个那么类似古汉字的方块文字,我看也不像真货——我大胆怀疑小心求证——猜想会不会是洋人仿照中国石器时代的陶文方块字而伪造的呢?泥版那东西,很容易伪造啊!

四、柏拉图、亚里士多德的著作文本可疑

至于柏拉图、亚里士多德的著作,的确,就是全部流传不明,也没有保存下来的任何原始版本!(别说老何不懂古希腊文,所以没资格讨论这个——若我没资格,那世上也就没人有资格!因为那些所谓的希腊著作,几乎没有一本是古希腊文的原著,不是来自希伯来文就是来自阿拉伯文——从来就没有人见过存在什么古希腊原始文本)——谁若说有,那就请告诉大家,究竟中国的哪本希腊著作,是从古希腊文直接翻译的?!

至于那些浩如烟海的所谓“亚里士多德著作”,很可能是来自古代小亚细亚地区许多不同时期、不同作者之著作的冒名顶替的堆砌,所以连中文《亚氏全集》的译者苗先生对此都表示心存疑惑。

五、所谓的希腊哲学科学巨匠多数非欧洲希腊人,而是亚洲人

最讽刺的是,无数国人崇拜无比的那些所谓希腊哲人——除了一个柏拉图是正牌雅典人,大多数都不是希腊人而是亚洲——小亚细亚人,包括大名鼎鼎的赫拉克利特、毕达哥拉斯、欧几里得、阿基米德等等。

这些都是鉄一般的事实——洋奴、假洋鬼子你们否定得了吗?!

最讽刺的是,无数国人崇拜无比的那些所谓希腊哲人——除了一个柏拉图是正牌雅典人,大多数都不是希腊人而是亚洲——小亚细亚人,包括大名鼎鼎的泰阿尼徳、赫拉克利特、毕达哥拉斯、欧几里得、阿基米德等等。

这些都是鉄一般的事实——洋奴、假洋鬼子你们否定得了吗?!

西方学术制造希腊伪史的重要手段之一,就是窃取小亚细亚(即爱奥尼亚)地区发达的古文明、古哲学,将其伪装、冒充为希腊本岛(雅典希腊)的欧洲文明。

六、古希腊罗马文明与蛮族日耳曼以及盎格鲁·撒克逊文明没有承接关系

还有这一条打洋奴、洋鬼子的脸最狠!就是:希腊文明根本不是西方白种人的文化祖宗!从神圣罗马帝国时代起,西方白种人一直冒认希腊、罗马为自己的祖宗。而伏尔泰说过一句意味深长的名言——“这个帝国既不神圣,也非罗马,更不是帝国!”

就算希腊的历史完全是真,没有什么伪史,也无关紧要。——因为希腊人和后来的罗马人,所谓希腊罗马文明——根本不是日耳曼人、盎格鲁·撒克逊人(那些来自北欧的白人)以及西方文明的祖宗!两者不是同一个人种,也完全没有文化方面一脉相承的传承关系。

相反,日耳曼人包括盎格鲁·撒克逊人一直是希腊、罗马人的死敌。这些白种人被希腊罗马人称作讲鸟语的蛮族——野蛮人,是希腊罗马不共戴天的仇人。

那些白种洋人本身没有可以骄傲的古代历史、起源太野蛮,自己不好意思,所以就造了个希腊罗马的假历史作为自己的祖宗拜。所谓的“文艺复兴”运动,其实就是白种人(拉丁人、日耳曼人、盎格鲁·撒克逊人)系统伪造西方文明的一场运动。

我之所以敢冒天下之大不韪,向堆积如山的西方近代出现的希腊学文献和考古挑战,就是基于以上极其简明的六点。

揭露希腊罗马的伪史,就是在西方的文明神话上面捅出了一个大窟窿——相信中国人以后必有来者,会继续循此思路而继续思考、认真研究。那时他们就会发现,西方目前编写的整个世界历史,其实都是根据西方近代的价值观念伪造的——完全不是信史。我所揭露的希腊及罗马的伪史,不过只是冰山之一角而已!

中国文明在晚近的三百年间由于成为东胡满清的殖民地而衰败不已,但是汉唐宋明以来的大中华古代文明是极其辉煌的,中国人不需要伪造自己的历史和文明。中国人应当重新塑造自己的文化自信、自尊和自豪!

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      2017/2/9 8:56:34

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      2017/3/16 14:15:10
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      闭嘴吧,顽固不化蠢货,去死吧

      2017/3/16 14:14:17
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      英文版:

      He Xin: Six Key Aspects of Greece Pseudohistory

      [ws按:说对了,老何真滴很高兴。他出版《希腊伪史考》,其实就是冒天下之大不韪,成心对中外的真、假洋鬼子下战书,向已经堆积如山的中外希腊伪史叫板和挑战。在高某之前一直没有得到有点分量的回应,让他感到有点寂寞。所以读到高文后,他连说谢谢!]

      The key point of the question of authenticity of Greek civilization lies in six aspects as follows. And these are the vital points of the fact that all the cunning foreign devils and those fake ones all the time averted positive response elaborately:

      I. The vital point of the authenticity of Greek history: in the history there has never existed something like “Greece” or “Greek culture”

      Actually, the argument of my criticism on the Greece pseudoculture and pseudohistory could be divided into the following four key points:

      1. Before the Greek independence campaign against the rule of Ottoman Turks was launched in the 19th century, there had been no existence of a unified, independent and autonomous country with sovereignty named “Greece” formed on the Greek peninsula throughout the history.

      2. The ancient Greece has never formed a unified country and, also, an independent sovereignty, no kingship, dynasty or king. Supposing that a country has never gained its independence in a history, how could it has its independent nation and culture?

      [In most period of the history, some parts of Greek peninsula were subordinated to Persia, Macedonian Empire, Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. Later on, its jurisdiction was transferred to Ottoman Empire.]

      3. Before Alexander conquered city-states of ancient Greece, in Greek peninsula there had been only a few city-states with backward economy and culture like Athens with only a couple of tens of thousands of citizens in its most prosperous period. There had not been precedence to fall back regarding big colonial empire—in the history there hasn’t existed a single unified Kingdom of Greece or Greek Empire and any jurisdiction of a city-state has never covered more than its strictly confined area in its indigenous territory.

      4. All the circulated and admired “the great Greek history in earlier history” were absolutely concocted and fabricated fairy stories coming from “Homer’s Epic” of unknown origin by after the Renaissance, and that means those had never turned up in previous history.

      Gao completely averted all my four fundamental questions, while he talked about something trifling seemingly as a knowledgeable scholar. As a matter of fact, it was only some stuff without any efficacy to be responsive to my questions.

      In fact, whoever wants to refute me, Old He, is unnecessary to remark something like that stuff. It could be a better start from those four points—please cite an example to prove the existence of a single unified Kingdom of Greece or Greek Dynasty, Greek Empire or Greek Democratic and Federal State before 1832 in the world and when and where it took place, which facilitates the process of paying back its greatness and glory.

      If no precedence could be found proving unified Greece as an entity and principal part of Greek civilization, it has to be admitted that all the fairy tales made up of “ancient Greek Civilization” had no their owners. And no idea came that where the ancient Greece was. So all that was just junk things, including his passage used for clarifying the civilization of the ancient Greece.

      II. Homer was an Asian and Homer’s Epics weren’t Greek Epics

      Let me repeat it, the Homer's Epics had a suspicious and unknown origin.

      Where on the hell did the Homer come from? Homer was a world citizen without nationality, or, he was a European of Greek peninsula? Nope, instead, an Asian and people of Asia Minor.

      An interesting question comes that, without the history of a Greece, how does the comment come that Homer’s masterpiece were all about Greek fairy tales and epics?

      Actually, the question that, who Homer was, male or female, and a single man or a group of people has not been clear in Western academic circles, without any ultimate conclusion! However, all the available Greek prehistory was fabricated based upon the unclear pseudo history and fairy tales!

      [The Library of Alexandria, known as the unique owner archiving the original book, Homer, it was said, had been destroyed in chaos of war in the earlier the Christian era without any remains. But Western classical academic history, composed by Sandys in 19th century in Britain, was highly raved about. It’s nothing useful! That book was just used for plugging the loopholes of the fabricated Western history, which recorded waste stuffs and was filled with lies. Like the Library of Alexandria, which Sandys said survived the fire hazard,actually was a great blow to Gibbon, the ancestor of the ancient Greece and Rome.

      The Library of Alexandria, remaining or not, possible or impossible was still a controversial question in Western history, a Western incredible history! Most of the Western Greek and Roman masterpieces that popped up after the Renaissance have still been so far uncertain in authenticity.]

      Gao has listed in detail a series of discoveries on Homer’s Epics in Egyptian papyrus fragments by British versed in fabricating history. I am not a scholar of edition of Homer, and disinclined to discuss the authenticity of these matters above. What I will say, is that these papyrus fragments will do nothing with the pseudo history of Greece.

      The content of Homer’s Epics is something about the legend that Achaeans attacked Ilium City, which, however, didn’t take place in Greek peninsula and was not Greek civil war. Now that the reality of Greece’s existence was unreal, where could you find the Greek civil war? So, the Achaeans called by Homer were, in reality, Asian (Ionian—citizen of Asia Minor), rather than European of Greek peninsula, Athens or Greece.

      From the perspective of Western archaeology in the past century, it was thought that the war in the Homer’s Epics was waged in Asia and Asia Minor of the east coast of Mediterranean Sea. (For example, in the end of 19th century, Schliemann, a German scholar, explored the relics of an ancient city in the western coast of Asia Minor, concluding that the ancient city was the capital Ilion of Troy.)

      All in all, the Homer’s Epics has nothing related to the so-called history of Greek peninsula, particularly, the history of Athens and Greece. It was unreasonable to treat Homer’s Epics as Greek Epics.

      III. Mycenaean civilization and Minoan culture didn’t come from Greece

      Someone put it that Minoan and Messinia culture could be found in Greek archaeology. But, could you find a Greece in BC 3000-1000 in the world?

      If not, why could the two independent and self-existing ancient culture of islands be taken over to nonexistent ancient Greece? Someone referred to fairy tales of Homer—— it is an absolute shit! If the Homer’s fairy tales could serve as a testimony to history, the Journey to the West and the Legend of Deification could be filed in the textbook as an authentic history to learn!

      So-called Minoan and Messinia archaeology, though dug out as a discovery, were not purely fake stuffs, in which, most were doubted as fake antique. (Like the clay pots with exquisite patterns were doubtful, for all the human being had not reached that level to fire colored pottery and attach exquisite patterns to the pots) As to that ox-headed monster Minos, the king of Crete, was absolutely a fake stuff. Something like linear text A/B made up of mud, that should be square characters, in my eyes, was almost a fake stuff, too. I boldly doubt it while discreetly proving it. I assume whether foreign people made it in copy of square characters of inscription on pottery. Something like clay matrix was so easy to copy

      IV. The text of the masterpieces of Plato and Aristotle is doubtful

      As for masterpieces of Plato and Aristotle, certainly, no original versions were handed down and circulated nowhere to find. (Let us not go into the matter that He knows nothing about ancient Greek so that he is not qualified to discuss it——if I am not eligible for that, there is no one that could be eligible! Those so-called Greek masterpieces were almost not original version of ancient Greek at all, either coming from Hebrew or Arabic). If someone admits the existence of them, please tell everyone which Greek masterpiece in Chinese version is rendered from ancient Greek?

      As for those innumerable so-called masterpieces of Aristotle stems most probably from piles of work by those under the mask of other authors in different era in most different regions of ancient Asia Minor so that the translator of the Complete works of Aristotle, Mr. Miao, casts his doubt on it.

      V. Most of the so-called great Greek philosophers and scientists are not Greeks but Asians.

      What's the most ironic, except Plato, a native Athenian, most of the so-called great Greek philosophers having countless Chinese fans are Asians, Anatolians, precisely speaking, including celebrated Heraclitus, Pythagoras and Euclid, Archimedes, etc.

      All these are rock solid facts—could you deny the foreign slaves and devils?

      VI. There’s no bond between the civilization of Ancient Athens and Greece and the civilization of Germanic of barbaric ethnic groups as well as Anglo-Saxon.

      And the faces grown on those people attacking foreign slaves and devils are the cruelest: Greek civilization is not the resource of western white people.

      Since Holy Roman Empire, the white and foreign people all the time mistake Greece and Roma as their ancestor. While Voltaire has put a word profoundly that this empire was not holy, and, neither Rome nor Empire it could be!

      Even the history of Greece is totally true without any pseudo history, it doesn’t matter at all. Because Greeks and later Romans and so-called roman civilization were not proved as the predecessor of Germanic people, Anglo-Saxons, and western civilization. The two were not the same race, nor were they culturally inherited together. Conversely, Germanic people, including Anglo-Saxons were the foes of Greeks and Romans. These white people were called by Greeks and Romans barbaric ethnic groups speaking obscure languages. In their eyes, they were enemies of Greeks and Romans.

      These white people don’t have ancient history they could took pride in. They have a barbaric origin, and they feel ashamed, so they made a false history as their predecessor. The so called Renaissance, was in fact a campaign forged by white people including Latin people, Germanic people, and Anglo-Saxons.

      Something sensational has been found while revealing the pseudo history of Greece and Rome. Believably from now on more Chinese people will study and rethink about it. Then they will find, the whole world history written by westerners is factually faked according to western values, being anything but believable history. And what I have disclosed is just the tip of the iceberg.

      2017/2/9 8:56:48

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