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帖子主题:转贴:路透社社论: 以色列对加沙的海上封锁是否合法?

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转贴:路透社社论: 以色列对加沙的海上封锁是否合法?

路透社稿件:http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE65133D20100602

译文: 新城的博客:http://wienerneustadt.blog.163.com/blog/static/120531048201054112148238/

原标题: Is Israel's naval blockade of Gaza legal?

LONDON, June 2 (Reuters) - Israel has said it will continue a naval blockade of the Gaza Strip despite growing global pressure to lift the siege after a navy raid on a Turkish ferry carrying aid killed nine activists this week.

伦敦, 6月2日, 路透社讯- 尽管发生了导致9名活跃分子死亡的海上袭击事件, 以色列当局拒绝理会当前日益高涨的要求其解除对加沙地带封锁的世界性舆论压力, 并声称它将继续对加沙实施海上封锁.

What is the legality of the blockade and did Israel's intervention breach international law? Below are some questions and answers on the issue:

下面是关于对于封锁的合法性以及以色列是否违反国际法的问题的讨论:

CAN ISRAEL IMPOSE A NAVAL BLOCKADE ON GAZA?

以色列可以对加 沙实施海上封锁吗?

Yes it can, according to the law of blockade which was derived from customary international law and codified in the 1909 Declaration of London. It was updated in 1994 in a legally recognised document called the "San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea". Under some of the key rules, a blockade must be declared and notified to all belligerents and neutral states, access to neutral ports cannot be blocked, and an area can only be blockaded which is under enemy control.

是的, 根据有关封锁的习惯法以及成文化伦敦宣言. 相关法律在1994年通过的"San Remo关于海上武装冲突国际法手册"上获得更新. 根据其关键条文, 封锁必须先公告并告知相关各方, 中立港口的通航不受阻碍, 并且只有敌占区才可被封锁.

"On the basis that Hamas is the ruling entity of Gaza and Israel is in the midst of an armed struggle against that ruling entity, the blockade is legal," said Philip Roche, partner in the shipping disputes and risk management team with law firm Norton Rose.

"根据哈马斯是加沙的控制主体, 而以色列正在与之进行武装交战这一事实, 封锁是合法的" Philip Roche, 与Norton Rose律师行专门处理海运纠纷以及风险管理的合作伙伴如是说.

WHAT ARE INTERNATIONAL WATERS?

什么是公海?

Under the U.N. Convention of the Law of the Sea a coastal state has a "territorial sea" of 12 nautical miles from the coast over which it is sovereign. Ships of other states are allowed "innocent passage" through such waters.

根 据联合国海洋法的说法, 海岸线对开12海里以内是主权领海, 其他国家船只可以"无害通过".

There is a further 12 nautical mile zone called the "contiguous zone" over which a state may take action to protect itself or its laws.

再对开12海里就是"专属经济区", 相关国家可以采取行动自卫或执法.

"However, strictly beyond the 12 nautical miles limit the seas are the "high seas" or international waters," Roche said.

"但是,严格来说,12海里以外的海洋就是公海" Roche说

The Israeli navy said on Monday the Gaza bound flotilla was intercepted 120 km (75 miles) west of Israel. The Turkish captain of one of the vessels told an Istanbul news conference after returning home from Israeli detention they were 68 miles outside Israeli territorial waters.

以色列海军周一称船队在以色列以西120公里处被 拦截。其中一个参与船队的船长则在获释后告诉在伊斯坦布尔的媒体,他们是在距以色列领海68英里处被拦截。

Under the law of a blockade, intercepting a vessel could apply globally so long as a ship is bound for a "belligerent" territory, legal experts say.

法 律专家称,根据与封锁有关的法律,拦截船只可以是全球性的,只要船只是要驶向“敌方”领域。

CAN ISRAEL USE FORCE WHEN INTERCEPTING SHIPS?

以色列有权使用武力拦截船只 吗?

Under international law it can use force when boarding a ship

在国际法上,相关方面使用武力登船是合法的。

"If force is disproportionate it would be a violation of the key tenets of the use of force," said Commander James Kraska, professor of international law at the U.S. Naval War College.

"如果武力是不相称的,这将违背使用武力的基本原则." 美国海战学院的教授司令官James Kraska如是说。

Israeli authorities said marines who boarded the Turkish vessel Mavi Marmara opened fire in self-defence after activists clubbed and stabbed them and snatched some of their weapons.

以色列当局称海军陆战队是在登船后受到活跃分子用棍棒袭击并抢夺他们的武器才开火。

Legal experts say proportional force does not mean that guns cannot be used by forces when being attacked with knives.

法律专家称相称的武力不等于说在受到刀具袭击时不使 用枪支

"But there has got to be a relationship between the threat and response," Kraska said.

“但这肯定有威胁与反应的关系”Kraska说。

The use of force may also have other repercussions.

使用武力可能会引起反弹。

"While the full facts need to emerge from a credible and transparent investigation, from what is known now, it appears that Israel acted within its legal rights," said J. Peter Pham, a strategic adviser to U.S. and European governments.

“虽然整件事的全部事实需要有一个可靠透明的调查,从现在可以了解到的情 况,以色列是在其合法权限内采取行动”美国欧洲多国政府的战略顾问J. Peter Pham如是说。

"However, not every operation that the law permits is necessarily prudent from the strategic point of view."

“但是, 并不是所有法律许可内的行动在战略的视角上是谨慎的”

OPPONENTS HAVE CALLED ISRAEL'S RAID "PIRACY". WAS IT?

反对者 称以色列的袭击行动是“海盗行为”,是吗?

No, as under international law it was considered a state action.

不是,在国际法上这次行动是国家行为。

"Whether what Israel did is right or wrong, it is not an act of piracy. Piracy deals with private conduct particularly with a pecuniary or financial interest," Kraska said.

“不管以色列所做的是否正确,这并不是海盗行为。海盗行为是针对钱财的作为。”

HAVE THERE BEEN ANY SHIPPING DISRUPTIONS AFTER THE RAID?

此次袭击以后,是不是还有其他的海运活动受阻?

None so far but the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS), an association which represents 75 percent of the world's merchant fleet, has expressed "deep concern" over the boarding by Israeli forces, arguing that merchant ships have a right to safe passage and freedom of navigation in international waters.

没有,但是代表世界上75%商船队的国际海运商会(ICS)对这次袭击深感担忧,认为商船在公海有安全通过的权利以及航行的自由。

"These fundamental principles of international law must always be upheld by all of the world's nations," the ICS said.

“这 些国际法的基本原则必须为全世界所有国家所支持及保护”ICS声明说。

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