汉英古文翻译

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导读:汉英古文翻译

苛政猛于虎 (礼记工员 檀弓)
 
孔子过泰山侧,有妇人哭于墓者而哀。夫子式而听之。使子路问之曰:“子之哭也,壹似重有ABC者?”
而曰:“然。昔者吾舅死于虎,吾夫又死焉,今吾子又死焉。”夫子曰:“何为不去也?”曰:“无苛政。”夫子曰:“小子ABC之,苛政猛于虎也。”
白话翻译
孔子有一次乘车经过泰山旁边,在那边有一位妇女在坟前哭而且哭得很悲恸。孔子把手扶在车前横木上听她哭,派子路去问她说:“您的哭声听起来实在像有好几件伤心的事似的。”
那个女人就说:“您的话说对了。从前我的公公死在老虎口中(被老虎咬死了),后来我的丈夫又死在老虎口中;现在我的儿子又死在老虎口中了。”孔子说:“为什么不离开这儿呢?”女人说:“这儿没有暴虐的政治。”孔子说:“弟子们记住这句话,暴虐的政治比老虎更凶猛可怕。
OPPRESSIVE GOVERNMENT IS MOKE FEARSOME
THAN A TIGER
    Once when Confucius was passing near the foot of Mount Tai in a chariot, there was a married woman weeping at a grave mound, and dolorously too. Confucius politely rested his hands on the front rail of the chariot and listened to her weeping. He sent Zilu to inquire of her, saying:” From the sound of your weeping, it seams that you indeed have many troubles.”
Then the woman said:” It is true. My father-in-law died in a tiger’s jaw; my husband also died there. Now, my son has also died there.” Confucius said,” Why do you not leave this place?” The woman said:” Here there is no harsh and oppressive government.” Confucius said,” Young men, take note of this: a harsh and oppressive government is more ferocious and fearsome than even a tiger.”

矛盾(韩非子 难一)

    楚人有ABC盾与矛者,誉之曰:“吾盾之坚,物莫能陷之。”以誉其矛曰:“吾矛之利,于物无不陷也。”或曰:“以子之矛陷子之盾,何如?”其人弗能应也。夫不可陷之盾与无不陷之矛不可同世而立。
白话翻译
    有个卖盾和矛的楚国人,夸他的盾说:“我的盾坚固得没有一个东西刺得破啊。”又夸他的矛说:“我的矛锋利得没有一个东西刺不破啊。”有人说:“用您的矛来刺您的盾,会怎么样?”那个人可就回答不出来啦。刺不破的盾和什么东西都刺得破的矛不可能同时存在。
SPEARS AND SHIELDS

    There was a man of the state of Chu who sold shields and spears. He bragged about his shields saying:” My shields are so hard that nothing can pierce through them .”He also bragged about his spears saying:” My spears are so sharp that there is nothing they cannot pierce through.” Someone said:” What would happen if people were to use your spears to pierce through your shields?’ That person could not answer. Now, shields that cannot be pierced through and spears that can pierced through anything cannot exist at the sane time.

塞翁失马 (淮南子 人间)
 
    近塞上之人有善术者,马无故亡而入胡,人皆ABC之。其父曰:“此何遽不能为福乎?”居数月,其马将胡骏马而,人皆贺之。其父曰?“此何遽不能为祸平?”家富良马,其子好骑,堕而折其骨,人皆ABC之。其父曰:“此何遽不能为福乎?”居一年,胡人大举入塞,丁壮者引ABC而战。近塞之人,死者十九,此(子)ABC以跛故,父子相保。故福之为祸,祸之为福,化不可极,深不可测也。
白话翻译
    靠近边界上的人里有个很会占卜的人,他的马无缘无故地逃跑进入胡人的领地去了,别人都来慰问他。他的父亲说:“这件事怎么就不能变成福呢?”过了几个月,他的马带着胡人的好马回来了,别人来向他道贺。他的父亲说:“这件事怎么就不能变成灾祸呢?”家里有很多马,他的儿子喜欢骑马,从马上摔下来,摔断了他的胯骨,别人者来慰问他。他的父亲说:“这件事怎么说不能变成福呢?”过了一年,胡人大规模地侵入边界,成年的男人都拿起弓来去打仗。靠近边界上的人,死掉的有十分之九,只有这个摔断胯骨的儿子因为瘸了的缘故,父亲跟儿子能平安地生活在一块儿。所以福变成祸,祸变成福,变化得没法子研究到底,深得没法子测量啊。
THE OLD MAN AT THE FRONTIER LOSES HIS HORSE
    Among the people near the frontier, there was one skilled at prognostication. For no reason, his horse ran off into the territory of the barbarians; everyone consoled him. His father said:” As for this, why can’t it become good fortune?” After several months, his horse returned leading some good barbarian horses; everyone congratulated him. His father said,” As for this, why can’t it become a disaster?” Since there were many good horses in the household, his son became fond of riding, fell off a horse, and broke his thigh bone; everyone consoled the son’s father. His father said, “ As for this, why can’t it become good fortune?” After a year, the barbarians entered the frontier in great numbers. All the adult males picked up their bows to go fight. Of the people near the frontier, nine out of ten died. Only because of this man’s son’s lameness, could father and son both be safe [secure]. Thus, as to how fortune becomes misfortune and misfortune becomes fortune, this transformation cannot be utterly known; its depth cannot be fathomed.

守株待兔(韩非子 五蠢)
   宋人有耕者,田中有株,兔走触株,折颈而死。因释其耒而守株,冀复得兔。兔不可复得,而身为宋国笑。
白话翻译
    有个耕田的宋国人,在田里有截树樁子,一条兔子跑过来,碰到树樁子,碰断了脖子就死了。耕田的人于是就放下他的犁去守着树樁子,希望再得到兔子。兔子他再也得不到,他自己反倒被宋国人嘲笑了。
WAITING FOR A HARE AT THE TREE STUMP
    There was a person in the state of Song who tilled the land; in his field was a tree stump. A hare ran by, dashed into the tree stump, broke its neck, and then died. The person tilling the field these upon put down his plough in order to watch the tree stump, hoping to get another hare. He could not get a hare again; instead he was laughed at by the people of Song.

揠 苗 :揠苗助长
宋人有闵其苗之不长而揠之者。芒芒然归,谓其人曰:“今日病矣!予助苗长矣!”其子ABC而往视之,苗则槁矣。
天下之不助苗长者寡矣。以为无益而舍之者,不耘苗者也;助之长者,揠苗者也。非徒无益,而又害
白话翻译:
有个担心他的苗长不大就去把苗拔高一点的宋国人,他很累地回家,告诉他家里的人说:“今天我可累坏啦!我刚才帮助苗长高了!”他的儿子跑著到田里去看苗,苗原来都已经枯了。
天下不帮助苗长的人少得很啊。认为没有好处就放ABC它的人是不替苗除掉野草的人;帮助苗长高的人是把苗拔高一点儿的人。揠苗这种做法不仅没有好处,反而还害了它。
PULING UP THE SPROUTS

There was a person from the state of Song who was concerned that his sprouts would not grow tall and who therefore pulled them up a bit. He returned home looking exhausted and spoke to the people in his family saying:” Today I am tired out! I have just helped the sprouts grow taller.” His son rushed out and went to the fields to look at the sprouts; it turned out that the sprouts had all withered.
The people in the world who do not help their sprouts grow are few indeed! The people who think there is no advantage in nurturing them are the people who abandon them; these are the people who do not weed their sprouts. The people who want to help their sprouts grow are the people who pull them up a bit. The method of pulling them up a bit not only has no benefit, but on the contrary also injures them.

晏子与楚王论盗
    晏子将使楚。楚王闻之,谓左右曰:“晏婴齐之习辞者也。今方来,吾欲辱之,何以也?”左右对曰:“为其来也,臣请缚一人,过王而行。王曰:‘何为者也?’对曰:‘齐人也。’
王曰:“何坐?”曰:‘坐盗’。”晏子至,楚王赐晏子洒。洒酣,吏二人缚一人旨王。王曰:“缚者曷为者也?”对曰:“齐人也,坐盗。”王视晏子曰:“齐人固善盗乎?”晏子避席对曰:“婴闻之,橘生于淮南则为橘;生于淮北则为枳。叶徒相似,其味实不同。所以然者何?水土异也。今民生长于齐不盗,入楚则盗,得无楚之水土使民善盗耶?”
白话翻译
    晏子将要出使到楚国。楚王听到这个消息,告诉待从们说:“晏婴是齐国娴熟辞令的人。现在他快要来了,我想要羞辱他,我应该用什么法子呢?”
待从回答说:“当他来的时候啊,请大王让我捆绑一个人,从您面前走过。您说:‘这个人是干什么的啊?’我回答说:‘这个人是齐国人。’您说:‘他犯了会么罪?’我说‘他犯了偷东事的罪。’”晏子到了,楚王摆洒席招待晏子,在他们喝洒喝到很高兴的时候,两个小官儿捆着一个人到楚王面前来了。王说:“捆着的人是干什么的人啊?”两个小官儿回答说:“这个人齐国人,他犯了偷东西的罪。”楚王看着晏子说:“齐国人本来就很善于偷东西吗?”晏子离开了座位回答说:“我听说,橘子生长在淮河以南,就橘子;生长在淮河以北,就变成了枳子了。两者的叶子白白相像,这两种水果的味道实在不同。橘子变成了枳子缘故是什么?这是因为淮南淮北的水土不同的缘故啊。现在人民生长在齐国不偷东西,到了楚国可就偷东西,莫非[是]楚国的水土使人民特别会偷东西吗?”
YANZI DISCUSSES THIEVING WITH THE KING OF CHU
Yanzi was about to go to the state of chu as an envoy. When the king of Chu heard this news, he spoke to his retainers saying:” Yan Ying is a man of Qi gifted with a silver tongue. Now he is about to come to Chu, I want to humiliate him; what means should I employ to do this?”
One of his attendants responded saying:” When he comes, let your majesty have me tie up a man and walk past your majesty. Your majesty will say:” What did this man do?” I will respond:’ This man is a man of Qi.’ Your majesty will say:’ What crime is he being punished for?’ I will respond:’ He is being punished for the crime of theft.’” Yanzi arrived. The king of Chu laid out a banquet to entertain him. When they gad become pleasantly inebriated, two minor officials tied up a man and came before the king. The king said:” What did the bound man do?” The two minor officials said:” This man is a man of the state of Qi who is being punished for the crime of robbery.” The king of Chu, looking at Yanzi, said:” Have the people of the state of Qi always excelled at robbery?” Yanzi left his seat and responded saying:” I have heard that when tangerine trees grow south of the Huai River, then they bear tangerines; if they grow north of the Huai River, then they will bear citrons. The leaves are similar to no avail, for the taste is really not the same at all. Why is it so? This is because the soil and water are different. Now if people who grow up in the state of Qi do not rob, yet when they enter the state of Chu, they rob, could it not be that it is the soil and water of the state of Chu that makes them excel at robbery?”

画蛇添足 (战国策 齐策)
    楚有祠者,赐其舍人卮酒。舍人相谓曰:“数人饮之,不足;一人饮之,有余。请画地为蛇,先成者饮酒。”一人蛇先成。 引酒且饮,乃左手持卮,右手画蛇曰:“吾能为之足。”未成,一人之蛇成。夺其卮曰:“蛇固无足,子安能为之足?”遂饮其酒。为蛇足者终亡其酒。
白话翻译

    楚国有个祭祀的人,他赐给他的门客一杯酒。门客们一块儿商量说:“几个人喝这杯酒,酒不够;一个人喝它,却又太多。让咱们在地面上画成一条蛇,先画完的人喝酒。”一个人蛇先画成了。那个人拿过酒杯来打算喝,却用左手端著酒杯,用右手画著蛇说:“我能给它添上脚。”他的蛇脚还没画完,另一个人的蛇画成了。这个人抢过那个酒杯说:“蛇本来没有脚,您怎么能给它添上脚?”这个人就把那杯酒喝掉了。为蛇添脚的人,终于失掉了他的酒。
DRAWING A SNAKE AND ADDING FEET
    In the state of Chu there was a man who was sacrificing to his ancestors; he offered his retainers a goblet of wine. The retainers spoke among themselves saying:” If several people drink it, there will not be enough; if one person drinks it, there will be some left over. Let us draw a snake on the ground; the one who finishes first drinks the wine.” One person finished the snake first.
    He drew the wine goblet to himself and was about to drink. Whereupon, holding the goblet in his left hand, he drew the snake with his right hand, saying:” I can add some feet to it.” Before he had finished drawing the feet, another person’s snake was finished. That person snatched away that goblet saying:” Snakes originally do not have feet; how is it that you can add feet to them?” That person thereupon drank that goblet. The person who added feet to the snake lost his wine in the end.

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