Japan's defense plans raise hackles in China

日本的防卫计划激怒中国

原文链接:

http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/12/world/asia/japan-china-defense-analysis/index.html?hpt=ias_c1

Editor's note: Geoff Hiscock is a former Asia business editor ofCNN.com, and author of "Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources."

编者注:GeoffHiscock(本文作者)是CNN亚洲版的前任主编,也是《地球战争:全球资源之战》的作者。

(CNN) -- Japan's new defense white paper has done little to mend fenceswith Beijing, with the Chinese government complaining that its Asian neighboris using the "China threat" to justify a bigger defense budget.

CNN——随着中国政府抱怨亚洲邻居利用“中国威胁论”为其更大的国防预算做辩护,日本的新防卫白皮书未能修补与北京的关系。

Japan will spend about $49 billionon defense in the fiscal year to March 2015 -- up about 3% from the previousyear -- in the face of what it says is a worsening security environment in theregion. It cites tensions on the Korean peninsula and territorial disputes inthe sea lanes running south from northern Asia as its key concerns.

截止2015年3月,日本将花费490亿美元在国防上,比去年增加了3%,旨在面对日益恶化的地区安全环境。该防卫白皮书还援引了朝鲜半岛的紧张局势以及航道南北的亚洲主要领土争端。

Under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe,Japan is becoming more assertive about its defense posture, and is looking toupgrade its military over the next four years with bigger helicopter carriers,more anti-submarine patrol aircraft, surveillance drones, better amphibiouswarfare capability, and first deliveries in 2018 of its new fifth-generationfighter, the U.S.-made F35 Joint Strike Fighter.

在首相安倍晋三的领导下,日本人对其防卫姿态更加自信,并打算在未来四年内升级军备。拥有更大的可搭乘直升机的航母,更多反潜巡逻机和侦察机,更好的两栖作战能力,同时在2018年首批交付新的第五代战斗机和美国F35联合攻击战斗机。

In terms of regional defense, Japanbenefits substantially from its security alliance with the United States, andis a big buyer of U.S.-made weaponry. It also builds its own submarines,surface ships and fighter variants.

在区域防务方面,日本基本上受益于与美国的安全同盟,他也是美国武器的一个大买主。而且,日本也生产了自己的潜艇、水面舰艇和变异战斗机。

China, whichwill likely spend about $200 billion this financial year on defense --second only to the United States -- is a significant buyer of Russian aircraft,ships and submarines, but is concentrating on its own domestic capabilities. Itlaunched its first aircraft carrier in late 2012, with two more likely to bebuilt by the end of this decade. It is also developing its own fifth-generationstealth fighter, the twin-engined J20, with the first deployment expected in2018.

中国每年在国防上花费了2000亿美元,仅次于美国,是俄罗斯飞机、潜艇和舰艇的重量级卖家。但他侧重的还是自身的能力。中国在2012年末推出了第一艘航母,而且可能会在2020年建成另外两艘航母。此外,中国也在开发第五代隐形战斗机和双引擎的J-20,并且有望在2018年部署到军队。

Dangerous activities

危险行为

Japan'sannual defense document, approved by the Abe cabinet on August 5, saysChinese ships and aircraft have engaged in "dangerous activities" indisputed areas such as the South China and East China Seas, and these couldhave "unintended consequences."

8月5号,安倍内阁批准了日本的年度防卫文件,称中国船只和飞机在东海南海等争议区域从事“危险行为”,这可能会导致无法预计的后果。

China's Defense Ministry quickly rejected the Japanese claim, calling it simply anexcuse for Japan's own military expansion. It said it strongly opposed Japan's"ignorance of facts" and its "groundless accusations" aboutChina's military development.

中国国防部立即否认了日本的声明,称这只是日本军事扩张的借口,并强烈反对日本“对事实的无知”以及“毫无根据地指责”中国的军事发展。

Japan says China needs to be moretransparent about the reasons behind what Tokyo calls a "broad andrapid" buildup of Chinese military might. It says China hasn't been clearabout the rationale for its expansion.

日本表示,中国需要更加透明化,其原因是东京所说的“广泛而迅速”地中国军事建设。他说,中国没有搞清楚发展的原理。

READ: Asiansuperpowers jostle to join carrier club

阅读:亚洲超级大国争相加入航母俱乐部

In the air, China already has morefrontline fighters than Japan, with the Chinese combat arsenal includingadvanced Russian SU-27 and SU-30 planes, and the domestic J10, J11 and J16.Japan has about 260 planes, including about 200 F15s, its mainstay fighter.Qualitatively, Japan still is seen to have an edge because of its closeintegration with the Japan-based U.S. military forces, in areas such as earlywarning, electronic warfare and refueling. By 2018, that air superiority couldtilt to China, depending on how smoothly the roll-out proceeds respectively forChina's J20 and the Japanese variant of the U.S. F35.

在空中,中国拥有比日本更多的前线战斗机,其中包括俄罗斯先进的SU-27、SU-30以及本国的J-10、J-11、J-16。日本大约拥有260架战斗机,其中200架都是F-15,它是日本的主力战机。可以说,日本仍然拥有更多的优势,因为他在这些区域与美军紧密相连,比如说预警、电子战和空中加油。到2018年,空中优势会向中国倾斜,这取决于顺利推出J-20和日本变异F-35所带来的收益。

U.S. pivot

美国的重心

For the United States, the China-Japandefense spending spat is another point of Asia-Pacific regional tension. Theadministration of U.S. President Barack Obama wants to expand and maintain goodrelations with China, but is mindful that Japan hosts most of the key U.S.forward bases in the region. Plus there is a powerful economic incentive:Asia-Pacific continues to be a major focus of arms sales for the U.S., incompetition with Russia, some European suppliers, and China itself.

对美国来说,中日国防开支口水仗是亚太局势紧张的另一个标志。美国总统奥巴马希望扩大并保持与中国的友好关系,但也应注意到日本掌握了美国在区域的主要前沿基地。再加上一个强大的经济诱因:在与俄罗斯、一些欧洲供应商和中国的竞争中,亚太地区仍然是美国武器的销售重点。

READ: Can Abemanage China tensions?

阅读:安倍能应对中国的张力吗?

According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI),global military spending last year was about $1.75 trillion, with the top 15nations accounting for about $1.4 trillion of that. It ascribed a figure of$640 billion to the U.S. in 2013, followed by China on $188 billion. Russiaranked third, with a 2013 spend of about $88 billion, ahead of Saudi Arabia($67 billion), France ($61 billion), UK ($58 billion), and Germany ($48.8billion). Japan, India and South Korea ranked 8th, 9th and 10th in 2013,according to SIPRI's calculations.

根据斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所(SIPRI),去年的全球军费开支约为1.75万亿美元,前15个国家就占了1.4万亿美元。这归咎于美国在2013年的军费开支为6400亿美元,接下来是中国的1800亿美元。俄罗斯排第三,军费开支为880亿美元。他们都高于其他国家。沙特阿拉伯为670亿美元,法国为610亿美元,应该为580亿美元,德国为488亿美元。而日本印度韩国则分列第八第九第十。

U.S. military spending declined in2013 and is budgeted to fall again in the year to September 2014 to about $526billion. In contrast, SIPRI says that China, Russia and Saudi Arabia have morethan doubled their military spending since 2004.

SIPRI称,美国2013年的军费开支下降了,并预计在2014年9月会再度下降到约5260亿美元。与之相反,中国俄罗斯和沙特阿拉伯的军费开支会超过2004年以来的两倍。

Territorial spat

领土争端

China and Japan have along-standing territorial dispute in the East China Sea over a group of islandsknown in Japan as the Senkakus and in China as the Diaoyutai. The islands lieabout 111 miles (180 kilometers) northeast of Taiwan and about 248 miles (400kilometers) west of Okinawa.

在东海的一片岛屿上,中国和日本长期都有领土争端。日本称这些岛屿为尖阁列岛,中国却称之为钓鱼岛。它们距离台湾东北部约111英里(180公里),距离冲绳西部约248英里(400公里)。

The area has seen a number of airand sea confrontations in recent years -- a point highlighted in the Japanesedefense white paper. It says: "China has intruded into Japaneseterritorial waters frequently and violated Japan's airspace by its governmentships and aircraft belonging to maritime law-enforcement agencies, and hasengaged in dangerous activities that could cause unintended consequences, suchas its vessel's direction of a fire control radar at a JMSDF destroyer, theflight of fighters abnormally close to JSDF aircraft, and its announcement ofestablishing the 'East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone' based on itsown assertion thereby infringing the freedom of overflight over the highseas."

最近几年,这些区域发生了许多空中和海上冲突。日本防卫白皮书强调了一个观点,它称:中国频繁地入侵日本的领海,属于海上执法机构的中国政府船只和飞机也侵犯了日本的领空,并从事着会导致意想不到后果的危险行动,比如说用火控雷达瞄准日本自卫队的驱逐舰,战斗机异常接近日本自卫队的战斗机,并宣布建立“东海防空识别区”。

In response, a Chinese Foreign Ministryspokesperson said on August 8 that there was "nothing disputable"about China carrying out "normal maritime and air activities which areconsistent with international laws and relevant domestic laws andregulations." The spokesperson said China was exercising its legitimaterights and interests in establishing the East China Sea ADIZ, and was "inconformity with international laws and common practices."

对此,中国外交部发言人8月8号表示:毫无疑问,中国是在执行正常的海空行动,这是符合国际法和国内相关法律的。他说,中国建立防空识别区是在行使合法权益,“与国际法律惯例一致。”

Japan also has a territorialdispute with South Korea over the Takeshima/Dokdo group of islands in the Seaof Japan/East Sea. South Korea complained that the Japanese defense white paperincluded the disputed islets as Japanese territory and called on Japan towithdraw what it termed an "unjust claim."

在日本海/东海的竹岛/独岛上,日本与韩国同样有领土争端。韩国称,日本的防卫白皮书把争议岛屿视为日本的领土,要求日本撤回“不公正的主权主张。”

Further south, in the South ChinaSea, China is in dispute with Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei,Indonesia and Taiwan over competing claims to various islets and rockyoutcrops.

在南海南部,中国与越南、菲律宾、马来西亚、文莱、印度尼西亚、台湾也有领土争端。它们都声称拥有多个岛屿和岩石的主权。

美国CNN网友

jorgii0550 • 4 hours ago

China has become filthy rich by stealing other nationsproducts, technology and R&D.....now they move on to stealing theirneighbor's lands....

Arms race among Asian Nations is the reality now in Asia.Precious resources/funds which should have been used to improve peoples livesare now being wasted on Arms .

China's greediness is the cause of all this mess.

通过窃取其他国家的产品、技术和研发,中国已经变得很有钱了。现在,它们继续窃取林俊的领土。

目前,亚洲国家间的军备竞赛是真实的。珍贵的资源和资金应该被用来改善人民的生活,而不是浪费在军备上。

中国的贪婪导致了所有混乱。

Yamatosenkan • 9 minutes ago

Japan's defense budget has remained stable, around 1% ofGDP, and the last increase is minimal. In contrast, China's"defense"budget has been growing with double digits -although exactlyhow much is unknown, since the communists are very secretive about it.

Twenty years ago, East-Asia was a pretty safe region with alow risk of conflict. Now we see Chinese territorial claims enforced by dailyincursions by Chinese ships and jets, violating international laws and norms.All this is accompanied by the shrill propaganda of the CCP.

Other Asian countries are just doing the best they can inthe face of Chinese aggression.

日本的国防预算一直很稳定,约为GDP的1%,去年的增幅也是最小的。相比一下,中国的“国防”预算已经上升了两位数。由于共产党保持神秘,国防预算到底有多少是未知的。

20年前,东亚是一个非常安全的地方,发生冲突的风险很低。现在我们看到中国利用船只飞机执行着其领土猪肚昂,这违反了国际法律法规。所有这些都伴随着共产党的尖锐宣传。

在面对中国的侵略时,其他亚洲国家也只是尽了自己最大的努力。

Canmav • 4 hours ago

China can spend money on "defense" but otherscannot? Rubbish

中国能花钱“防御”,其他人就不行?真是垃圾

Brian • 4 hours ago

Kinda silly for china to be doing a massive military buildup and tell it's neighbors not to. Is that really sane?

有点傻,中国自己大规模发展军事,却告诉邻居别这样做。这样真的明智吗?

gary • 4 hours ago

All this is a conspiracy of the United States, the use ofAsian countries to contain China's rise, he feared the rise of China tochallenge his world police status, the United States is rubbish and DOG

所有这些都是美国的一个阴谋,利用亚洲国家阻止中国崛起。美国担心随着中国崛起,中国会挑战他的世界警察地位。美国是垃圾,是狗。

I.R.H. • 3 hours ago

I'm on Japan's side. They, like most other Asian nationsare worried about China's increased aggression in the South China sea. Mostrecently the Chinese have been using large naval ships as weapons againstVietnamese fishermen. Japan has been forging cooperative naval alliances withIndia which is a good thing. India has been allied with the USA on the sea fordecades as has Japan. New alliances are being formed throughout the ASEANnations in order to combat military belligerence.

我站在日本这边。日本就像许多亚洲国家一样,担心中国会持续入侵南海。最近,中国已经使用了大型舰船武器对付越南渔民。日本与印度的海军联盟是件好事。和日本一样,印度与美国的海上联盟已经好几十年了。随着东盟国家为军事战斗做准备,新的联盟正在形成。

AlisterWang • 3 hours ago

Everyone is paying so much attention to China.

You don't have to and should not have done so.

每个人都这么注意中国。

不需要也不应该这样。

conrus • 3 hours ago

China == Russia == ISIS/Hamas/Syria/Tibet/Crimea/Al Queda

All of them are same sheet

中国=俄罗斯=ISIS/哈马斯/叙利亚/西藏/克里米亚/基地

他们都是如出一辙。

jj • 3 hours ago

Well, U.S. can export more weapons to Asia, and gain more"allies", good for business and national security.

U.S. always thrive on conflicts over the world, so long asits not on U.S. soil,

美国可以出口更多的武器到亚洲,并获得更多的“盟友”,这将有利于企业和国家安全。

只要冲突不在美国本土,美国总是会扩大它。

adreko • an hour ago

Boycott Chinese Toxic Products !!!

抵制有毒的中国产品!!

HerbertTheJew • 2 hours ago

Can never forgive the Japanese for what they did

永远不会原谅日本人的行为。

lixirf • 2 hours ago

At least few countries dare to declare war on china, andmust be cautious when talk about china whether you like or dislike ,which isimpossible in the past hundreds years.

至少,很少有国家敢向中国宣战。当谈论喜欢不喜欢中国时,你必须要小心,这在过去的几百年里是不可能的。

Lewis • an hour ago

Amerca: we must place bases in Asia in order to defend ourally Japan.

Japan: we must expand our military to defend our ally America.

A lot of defending going on here.

美国:为了保护我们的盟友日本,我们必须在亚洲建立基地。

日本:为了保护我们的盟友美国,我们必须扩充军力。

这里会有更多的防卫。

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]