医疗帐单让我们都感到吃紧,而最近一项家庭开支调查的数据给出了让每个人都感到痛楚的原因。家庭医疗帐单总开支在城郊地区上涨了317%,乡村地区家庭在医疗单位治病总开支涨了363%。住家医疗花费,城乡两地都涨了将近200%。诊断测试 – X光透视、心电图,以及各种医学化验 – 是这个无情上涨大潮的推动力量。2000年到2012年期间,在城郊地区医院、养老院单位看病护理, 测试化验费用上涨高达541%。

How Indians spend their money

印度人家都怎么花钱

Healthcare | Testing times

医疗

We’ve all felt the pinch of medical bills, and now data from a recent survey on household spending shows why everyone’s been feeling the pain. Total familyspend on medical bills increased by 317% in urban areas and 363% in rural areas for institutional care. At-home medical expenses increased by about 200% in both urban and rural areas.

医疗帐单让我们都感到吃紧,而最近一项家庭开支调查的数据给出了让每个人都感到痛楚的原因。家庭医疗帐单总开支在城郊地区上涨了317%,乡村地区家庭在医疗单位治病总开支涨了363%。住家医疗花费,城乡两地都涨了将近200%。

Diagnostic tests — X-rays, ECGs, and pathological tests — are the driving force in this relentless upward movement. For institutional care in hospitals and nursing homes, costs of tests increased by as much as 541% in urban areas between 2000 and 2012. No comparison is available for rural areas in the same period as test facilities were rare and mostly free in government hospitals. Even for the at-home patient, costs of diagnostic tests zoomed up by over 400% in the same period.

诊断测试 – X光透视、心电图,以及各种医学化验 – 是这个无情上涨大潮的推动力量。2000年到2012年期间,在城郊地区医院、养老院单位看病护理, 测试化验费用上涨高达541%。乡村地区,由于测试化验设备稀缺,並且在公立医院这些项目大多免费,因此没有同期对比。即使是住家病人,同期诊断测试费用也猛涨了400%多。

For an urban family of four, average medical expenses would be about Rs 200 per month for hospital care or nearly Rs 400 per month for at-home treatment and care. In rural areas, the average monthly costs for a similar family would work out to about Rs 120 for hospital care and Rs 250 for athome care. The higher costs even at home are mainly because of medicines.

一个城市4口之家,平均每月在医院看病的医疗费用约为200卢比,而在家治疗护理,每月开支将近400卢比。农村地区类似家庭,平均每月医院看病费用总数约为120卢比,在家养病为250卢比。在家养病的费用甚至还更高,主要由药费引起。

Despite the enormous spending on National Rural Health Mission over the past seven years, and the attempts to expand an affordable health insurance scheme, the cost increases are substantially more in rural areas compared to urban areas. Thus, increases in doctors’ fees in hospitals were 433%in rural areas compared to 362% in urban, hospital charges went up by 454%in rural areas compared to 378% in urban areas and medicine costs in hospitals went up by 259% in rural versus about 200% in urban areas. Keeping the patient at home and getting treated seemed a better option in rural areas because at-home costs were not as high as institutional costs.

过去7年里,对’全国乡村医疗计划’做了巨大投入、为推扩花费得起的医疗保险计划做了种种努力,即使这样,相比之下,乡村地区费用的增长还是大大高过城市地区。如今,在乡村地区医院看医生的费用涨了433%,比较之下,城市地区涨了362%;相互对照,乡村地区医院收费上涨了454%,城市地区上涨378%;乡村地区医院药费上涨了259%,而城市地区约为200%。农村地区, 选择把病人留在家中接受治疗似乎更好,因为这样费用没有在医疗单位那么高。

What this carnage of family budgets has led to is worrying but unsurprising: there has been a decline in cases of hospitalization. The number of families that reported expenditure on hospitalization dipped from 19% to 14% in urban areas and from 19% to 15% in rural areas. Lack of proper facilities at accessible distances is also a factor in dipping cases of hospitalization in rural areas.

这种对家庭预算的沉重打击导致住院病例持续下降,这让人担忧,但並不出乎预料。城市地区报有住院开支的家庭从19%降至14%, 乡村地区从19%降为15%。能够到达的地方缺少合适的医疗设施,也是导致乡村地区住院率下降的一个因素。

Conversely, families that spent on patient care at home increased from 61%to 75% in urban areas and from 62%to 79% in rural areas. The new data is from a consumer expenditure survey carried out by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) in 2011-12.

与之相反,城市地区有在家养病花费的家庭从61%增加到75%,乡村地区从62%增加到79%。这一新数据来自’全国抽样调查组织’在2011 – 12年间开展的一项消费者开支调查报告。

Education | Cost of fees, tuitions skyrockets

教育

Even as the thirst for education has increased among Indians, the system has become more expensive and its quality has gone down. Family spending on education increased by a jaw-dropping 390% in urban areas in 2011-12 and 433% in rural areas compared to 1999-2000.

尽管印度人对教育的渴望更加强烈,教育体制却变得越加昂贵而且质量还下降了。2011 – 2012与1990 – 2000期间相比,城市地区家庭在教育方面的支出增加了让人惊掉下巴的390%、乡村地区增加了433%。

The biggest increase is in the fees charged by educational institutions — 628% in urban areas and an incredible 924% in rural areas. Costs of other related items of expenditure, like books and stationery, too have shot up in the past 12 years.

增长幅度最大的是教育学院收费 – 城市地区达到628%、乡村地区则到了令人难以相信的924%。其它相关物品的费用,比如书本和文具用品,也在过去12年间疯狂上涨。

That there is a deep felt urge to get the children educated and thus build a better life than their elders is undoubtedly true. This is confirmed by the fact that the number of families reporting spending on education has increased from 68% to 76% in urban areas and from 54% to 66% in rural areas. But the families have to bear a heavy burden of this cost. In urban areas, a family of four would spend Rs 726 per month on an average while in rural areas a similar family would spend Rs 200 every month.

人们深切希望子女得到教育,进而打造一个比前辈们更好的生活,这是真的,不容置疑。下面事实也证实了这一点,报有教育开支的城市家庭数量从68%增加到了76%、农村家庭从54%到66%。但这些家庭必须承受这个费用带来的沉重负担。城市地区4口之家平均下来每月花费726卢比,乡村地区类似家庭每月花费200卢比。

Apart from this direct spending, various other costs are also incurred by families including uniforms for school going children, transport to and from the school and other incidental costs.

除了这项直接开支之外,这些家庭还产生了各种其它费用,包括上学子女的校服,上学来回交通费以及其它冒出来的费用。

The survey shed some light on what is called the ‘shadow education system’, that is, private tuition and coaching. In 2012, about 12% of families in rural areas were getting their kids’ education boosted by these parallel establishments, up from seven percent in 2000. In urban areas private coaching had spread to over 17% families from 15% in 2000. Costs of such private coaching have increased by nearly 300 percent in urban areas and 369% in rural areas.

这项调查还亮明了一些所谓的“影子教育体系”的情况,也就是,私人辅导和培训。2012年, 乡村地区家庭子女接受这些并存机构教育的比例大大提升,从2000年的7%升至12%。在城郊地区,私人培训扩展到超过17%的家庭,2000年这比例为15%。私人培训费用在城郊地区增加了将近300%,乡村地区增加了369%。

Education spending is highly dependent on how much the family’s income is. And it varies sharply between rural and urban areas. The richest 5% families in urban areas spend over Rs 900 per person while the poorest spend just Rs 16 per person. In rural areas, the richest 5% spend nearly Rs 300 per person on education while the poorest spend only eight rupees per person in a month.

一个家庭的教育支出高度依赖于收入的多少。这项支出在城市和乡村差异明显。在城郊地区,5%最富有的家庭支出超过900卢比/每人,而最穷的只花16卢比/每人。乡村地区,5%最富有家庭在教育上花费将近300卢比/每人,而最穷的每月只花8卢比/每人。

Food | The aloo-pyaaz thali

食品

Ever wondered why the rise in prices of onions and potatoes sends governments into a tizzy? The reason is that 91% families in rural areas and 86% in urban areas consume potatoes. Similarly, 96% families in rural areas use onions and 91% in urban areas. So, with practically the whole population addicted to these two vegetables, it is small wonder that high prices get everybody agitated. It also indicates that those who want to manipulate prices and make a quick buck are most likely to target onions and potatoes as very few will cut these out of their meals. Of course, it is possible to hoard these two vegetables because they are not as perishable as most others.

为什么洋葱土豆价格上涨会把各级政府弄得手忙脚乱,你奇怪过吗?理由是91%的乡村家庭和86%的城郊家庭消费土豆。类似地,96%的乡村家庭和91%的城郊家庭食用洋葱。因此,在几乎全体人口都爱好这两种蔬菜的情况下,高价扰得人人心神不宁也就不稀奇了。这还指出,那些想操纵价格挣快钱的人最容易盯上洋葱和土豆,因为极少有人会把它们从饭食中割舍。当然,囤积这两种蔬菜是可能办到的,因为它们不象大多数其它蔬菜那样容易萎蔫腐烂。

Consumption data from a recent NSSO report shows that apart from onions and potatoes, tomato is the most widely used vegetable, with 75% of rural and 85% of urban families consuming it. Green chillies are also consumed by over 80% of the population. What about other vegetables? Spinach and other leafy vegetables (of which there are several in India) are consumed by about 60% of the population. Brinjal (or eggplant) is also popular — nearly 60% of rural and 54% urban families eat its preparations.

NSSO最近报告中的消费数据显示, 除了洋葱土豆,食用最广泛的蔬菜就是蕃茄,75%乡村家庭和85%城郊家庭消费蕃茄。80%以上的人口也还食用青辣椒。其它蔬菜又怎样呢?大约60%的人口食用菠菜和其它叶菜(印度有好几种)。布林加尔(或叫茄子)也很受欢迎 – 将近60%乡村和54%的城郊家庭吃茄子,做法各有不同。

Lady’s Finger (okra), cauliflower, cabbage and carrots are more popular in urban than rural are- as but the whole gourd family — sweet-, long, bitter-, bottle-gourd, along with the pumpkin family are favoured more in rural areas, perhaps because of their ease of cultivation and very low costs.

女儿指(秋葵)、花椰菜、包菜和胡萝卜在城市比农村更受欢迎 – 但是,整个葫芦科,如瓠瓜、长瓜、苦瓜 – 葫芦瓜,连同南瓜科蔬菜在乡村地区更招人喜爱,这也许是它们容易种植並且价格很低的缘故。

Total monthly consumption of vegetables is about 6.8 kg per person in both rural and urban areas, perhaps one of the very few consumption items where there is no rural urban divide.

城乡两地,每月每人蔬菜消费总量都在6.8公斤左右。城乡消费没有差别的物品非常少见,这也许能算一种。

What about pulses, the single biggest source of protein for a largely vegetarian population? Worryingly, consumption of pulses had been declining over the years, mainly because of its sustained high prices. But there has been a slight revival in the past 2-3 years. Even then, per capita consumption of pulses has dipped by about 7% between 2000 and 2012. Arhar (tur) is the most popular dal with about 60% rural and 75% urban families consuming it.

对一个以素食者为主的人口来说,豆子是蛋白质的单一最大来源,那豆子又怎样呢?让人担忧,历年来豆子消费都呈下降,主要原因是持高不下的价格。但最近2 – 3年稍有好转。即便如此,在2000到2012年间,豆子的个人消费量还是下降了7%左右。木豆是最受欢迎的豆类,被60%乡村和75%城市人口食用。

About a quarter of the population reported eating fish or meat, while about 38% families ate eggs. The number of non-vegetarian families has probably dropped because high prices often drive people to stop eating meat except on occasions. Households eating fish and goat/mutton have declined since 2000 while chicken is now the meat of choice with 22% rural and 27% urban families eating it.

大约四分之一的人口报称吃魚或肉类, 同时有38%的家庭食用蛋类。非素食者家庭数量很可能有所下降,因为高昂的价格迫使人们停止吃肉,除非有特殊情况。吃鱼和山羊/羊肉的家庭自2000年来已经减少,而鸡肉成了现在肉类首选, 在乡村,22%的家庭食用鸡肉,在城郊,是27%。

以下为评论:[indent]

thomas cheenath (India)

potatos, onions, brinjal, tomatos ,green chillies are the most of the constituents of average Indian families

土豆、洋葱、茄子、蕃茄、青辣椒是普通印度家庭最常用蔬菜[/indent][indent]

seenobita (Unknown)

Ok, So what’s the point of this article?

好吧,但是这文章说明了什么?[/indent][indent]

Sitanshu Pandey (Banana Republic)

Interesting!

吸引人![/indent][indent]

Raju ()

Health, Education is recession free industry, now a days people have started spending more on religious functions, the author should have made one more analysis ie spending on religious things

医疗、教育是不受衰退影响的行业,现在人们开始在宗教仪式上花更多钱,作者应当再搞个分析,就是在宗教方面的花费[/indent][indent]

MUNISH ()

People in india spend most of their salary or money on onions & tomatoes.fruits are a delicacy only for the rich & if you eat the carbon monoxide ripened cancerous mangoes, you will be spending your fortune on medical bills. Only a small price you pay for living in india.

印度人把大部分收入或钱用来买洋葱和蕃茄。水果只是富人享用的上品,而且要是你吃了一氧化炭催熟的致癌芒果,那你就要在医药费上花大钱了。在印度活着只要小钱。[/indent][indent]

Mike ()

The authour should have given a analysis of how much % in rupee terms was spent in various categories…i dont see that anywhere, so dont really know the % of money of total income on food, medical bills, utilities, etc

作者应当给出一个卢比意义上的百分比分析,不同类别各花了多少…哪里也没见到这个,所以没有真正知道总收入的百分之多少用在食品、看病帐单、水电费用、等等[/indent][indent]

Bharat vamsi (Unknown)

Yes, there is vast difference in the spending pattern of Rural and Urban India.

是啊,印度城里、乡下花钱方式大不相同。[/indent][indent]

squid hi (India)

Now a days, its being really difficult to manage all things with the present salary. The prices of the basic items and vegetables are soaring up. The cut throat competition is also increasing the cost of tution/coaching fees in addition to school fees. This year the Manson is also very low so again there will be increase in the prices of daily need items.

如今,现有薪水真的很难应付所有事情。必需物品的价格和各种蔬菜都在猛涨。除了学校费用之外,残酷的竞争还推高了辅导/培训费用。今年雨季雨量很小,因此日需物品价格又会上涨。[/indent][indent]

VVijayalakshmi Venkataramanan (Unknown)

MIDDLE CLASS LIFE IS VERY DIFFICULT!

中产阶级生活非常难啊![/indent][indent]

Jagdip H Vaishnav (mumbai)

It is true that medical /Hospitalisation expenses have skyrocketed, Regulatory agency is failed to check & control price of medicines, various tests ,& Hospital expenses., similarly natural calamities , hoarders push upward price of food items, vegetables 7 even education, tuition fees have gone upward. All these have dried up domestic savigs & life of middle income families misreable

真的,医疗/住院费用涨上天了,监管部门没有管控好药品价格、各种测验以及医院费用,同样,自然灾害、奇居囤积也推高了各种食品、蔬菜价格,连教育、学费都涨了。所有这些榨干了家庭储蓄,中等收入家庭的日子苦不堪言。[/indent][indent]

Rahul Navghare (Bergen, Hordaland)

Total disagree with the article

完全不赞同这篇文章[/indent][indent]

Kunal Valecha (pune)

Article just for the sake of posting

这文章只是为发表而发表[/indent][indent]

S R (Mysore)

Good analysis. This is an informative article.

分析很好,是一篇有内容的文章。[/indent]