医疗帐单让我们都感到吃紧，而最近一项家庭开支调查的数据给出了让每个人都感到痛楚的原因。家庭医疗帐单总开支在城郊地区上涨了317％，乡村地区家庭在医疗单位治病总开支涨了363％。住家医疗花费，城乡两地都涨了将近200％。诊断测试 – X光透视、心电图，以及各种医学化验 – 是这个无情上涨大潮的推动力量。2000年到2012年期间，在城郊地区医院、养老院单位看病护理, 测试化验费用上涨高达541％。
How Indians spend their money
Healthcare | Testing times
We’ve all felt the pinch of medical bills, and now data from a recent survey on household spending shows why everyone’s been feeling the pain. Total familyspend on medical bills increased by 317% in urban areas and 363% in rural areas for institutional care. At-home medical expenses increased by about 200% in both urban and rural areas.
Diagnostic tests — X-rays, ECGs, and pathological tests — are the driving force in this relentless upward movement. For institutional care in hospitals and nursing homes, costs of tests increased by as much as 541% in urban areas between 2000 and 2012. No comparison is available for rural areas in the same period as test facilities were rare and mostly free in government hospitals. Even for the at-home patient, costs of diagnostic tests zoomed up by over 400% in the same period.
诊断测试 – X光透视、心电图，以及各种医学化验 – 是这个无情上涨大潮的推动力量。2000年到2012年期间，在城郊地区医院、养老院单位看病护理, 测试化验费用上涨高达541％。乡村地区，由于测试化验设备稀缺，並且在公立医院这些项目大多免费，因此没有同期对比。即使是住家病人，同期诊断测试费用也猛涨了400％多。
For an urban family of four, average medical expenses would be about Rs 200 per month for hospital care or nearly Rs 400 per month for at-home treatment and care. In rural areas, the average monthly costs for a similar family would work out to about Rs 120 for hospital care and Rs 250 for athome care. The higher costs even at home are mainly because of medicines.
Despite the enormous spending on National Rural Health Mission over the past seven years, and the attempts to expand an affordable health insurance scheme, the cost increases are substantially more in rural areas compared to urban areas. Thus, increases in doctors’ fees in hospitals were 433%in rural areas compared to 362% in urban, hospital charges went up by 454%in rural areas compared to 378% in urban areas and medicine costs in hospitals went up by 259% in rural versus about 200% in urban areas. Keeping the patient at home and getting treated seemed a better option in rural areas because at-home costs were not as high as institutional costs.
What this carnage of family budgets has led to is worrying but unsurprising: there has been a decline in cases of hospitalization. The number of families that reported expenditure on hospitalization dipped from 19% to 14% in urban areas and from 19% to 15% in rural areas. Lack of proper facilities at accessible distances is also a factor in dipping cases of hospitalization in rural areas.
Conversely, families that spent on patient care at home increased from 61%to 75% in urban areas and from 62%to 79% in rural areas. The new data is from a consumer expenditure survey carried out by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) in 2011-12.
与之相反，城市地区有在家养病花费的家庭从61％增加到75％，乡村地区从62％增加到79％。这一新数据来自’全国抽样调查组织’在2011 – 12年间开展的一项消费者开支调查报告。
Education | Cost of fees, tuitions skyrockets
Even as the thirst for education has increased among Indians, the system has become more expensive and its quality has gone down. Family spending on education increased by a jaw-dropping 390% in urban areas in 2011-12 and 433% in rural areas compared to 1999-2000.
尽管印度人对教育的渴望更加强烈，教育体制却变得越加昂贵而且质量还下降了。2011 – 2012与1990 – 2000期间相比，城市地区家庭在教育方面的支出增加了让人惊掉下巴的390％、乡村地区增加了433％。
The biggest increase is in the fees charged by educational institutions — 628% in urban areas and an incredible 924% in rural areas. Costs of other related items of expenditure, like books and stationery, too have shot up in the past 12 years.
增长幅度最大的是教育学院收费 – 城市地区达到628％、乡村地区则到了令人难以相信的924％。其它相关物品的费用，比如书本和文具用品，也在过去12年间疯狂上涨。
That there is a deep felt urge to get the children educated and thus build a better life than their elders is undoubtedly true. This is confirmed by the fact that the number of families reporting spending on education has increased from 68% to 76% in urban areas and from 54% to 66% in rural areas. But the families have to bear a heavy burden of this cost. In urban areas, a family of four would spend Rs 726 per month on an average while in rural areas a similar family would spend Rs 200 every month.
Apart from this direct spending, various other costs are also incurred by families including uniforms for school going children, transport to and from the school and other incidental costs.
The survey shed some light on what is called the ‘shadow education system’, that is, private tuition and coaching. In 2012, about 12% of families in rural areas were getting their kids’ education boosted by these parallel establishments, up from seven percent in 2000. In urban areas private coaching had spread to over 17% families from 15% in 2000. Costs of such private coaching have increased by nearly 300 percent in urban areas and 369% in rural areas.
Education spending is highly dependent on how much the family’s income is. And it varies sharply between rural and urban areas. The richest 5% families in urban areas spend over Rs 900 per person while the poorest spend just Rs 16 per person. In rural areas, the richest 5% spend nearly Rs 300 per person on education while the poorest spend only eight rupees per person in a month.
Food | The aloo-pyaaz thali
Ever wondered why the rise in prices of onions and potatoes sends governments into a tizzy? The reason is that 91% families in rural areas and 86% in urban areas consume potatoes. Similarly, 96% families in rural areas use onions and 91% in urban areas. So, with practically the whole population addicted to these two vegetables, it is small wonder that high prices get everybody agitated. It also indicates that those who want to manipulate prices and make a quick buck are most likely to target onions and potatoes as very few will cut these out of their meals. Of course, it is possible to hoard these two vegetables because they are not as perishable as most others.
Consumption data from a recent NSSO report shows that apart from onions and potatoes, tomato is the most widely used vegetable, with 75% of rural and 85% of urban families consuming it. Green chillies are also consumed by over 80% of the population. What about other vegetables? Spinach and other leafy vegetables (of which there are several in India) are consumed by about 60% of the population. Brinjal (or eggplant) is also popular — nearly 60% of rural and 54% urban families eat its preparations.
NSSO最近报告中的消费数据显示, 除了洋葱土豆，食用最广泛的蔬菜就是蕃茄，75％乡村家庭和85％城郊家庭消费蕃茄。80％以上的人口也还食用青辣椒。其它蔬菜又怎样呢？大约60％的人口食用菠菜和其它叶菜（印度有好几种）。布林加尔（或叫茄子）也很受欢迎 – 将近60％乡村和54％的城郊家庭吃茄子，做法各有不同。
Lady’s Finger (okra), cauliflower, cabbage and carrots are more popular in urban than rural are- as but the whole gourd family — sweet-, long, bitter-, bottle-gourd, along with the pumpkin family are favoured more in rural areas, perhaps because of their ease of cultivation and very low costs.
女儿指（秋葵）、花椰菜、包菜和胡萝卜在城市比农村更受欢迎 – 但是，整个葫芦科，如瓠瓜、长瓜、苦瓜 – 葫芦瓜，连同南瓜科蔬菜在乡村地区更招人喜爱，这也许是它们容易种植並且价格很低的缘故。
Total monthly consumption of vegetables is about 6.8 kg per person in both rural and urban areas, perhaps one of the very few consumption items where there is no rural urban divide.
What about pulses, the single biggest source of protein for a largely vegetarian population? Worryingly, consumption of pulses had been declining over the years, mainly because of its sustained high prices. But there has been a slight revival in the past 2-3 years. Even then, per capita consumption of pulses has dipped by about 7% between 2000 and 2012. Arhar (tur) is the most popular dal with about 60% rural and 75% urban families consuming it.
对一个以素食者为主的人口来说，豆子是蛋白质的单一最大来源，那豆子又怎样呢？让人担忧，历年来豆子消费都呈下降，主要原因是持高不下的价格。但最近2 – 3年稍有好转。即便如此，在2000到2012年间，豆子的个人消费量还是下降了7％左右。木豆是最受欢迎的豆类，被60％乡村和75％城市人口食用。
About a quarter of the population reported eating fish or meat, while about 38% families ate eggs. The number of non-vegetarian families has probably dropped because high prices often drive people to stop eating meat except on occasions. Households eating fish and goat/mutton have declined since 2000 while chicken is now the meat of choice with 22% rural and 27% urban families eating it.
大约四分之一的人口报称吃魚或肉类, 同时有38％的家庭食用蛋类。非素食者家庭数量很可能有所下降，因为高昂的价格迫使人们停止吃肉，除非有特殊情况。吃鱼和山羊/羊肉的家庭自2000年来已经减少，而鸡肉成了现在肉类首选, 在乡村，22％的家庭食用鸡肉，在城郊，是27％。
thomas cheenath (India)
potatos, onions, brinjal, tomatos ,green chillies are the most of the constituents of average Indian families
Ok, So what’s the point of this article?
Sitanshu Pandey (Banana Republic)
Health, Education is recession free industry, now a days people have started spending more on religious functions, the author should have made one more analysis ie spending on religious things
People in india spend most of their salary or money on onions & tomatoes.fruits are a delicacy only for the rich & if you eat the carbon monoxide ripened cancerous mangoes, you will be spending your fortune on medical bills. Only a small price you pay for living in india.
The authour should have given a analysis of how much % in rupee terms was spent in various categories…i dont see that anywhere, so dont really know the % of money of total income on food, medical bills, utilities, etc
Bharat vamsi (Unknown)
Yes, there is vast difference in the spending pattern of Rural and Urban India.
squid hi (India)
Now a days, its being really difficult to manage all things with the present salary. The prices of the basic items and vegetables are soaring up. The cut throat competition is also increasing the cost of tution/coaching fees in addition to school fees. This year the Manson is also very low so again there will be increase in the prices of daily need items.
VVijayalakshmi Venkataramanan (Unknown)
MIDDLE CLASS LIFE IS VERY DIFFICULT!
Jagdip H Vaishnav (mumbai)
It is true that medical /Hospitalisation expenses have skyrocketed, Regulatory agency is failed to check & control price of medicines, various tests ,& Hospital expenses., similarly natural calamities , hoarders push upward price of food items, vegetables 7 even education, tuition fees have gone upward. All these have dried up domestic savigs & life of middle income families misreable
Rahul Navghare (Bergen, Hordaland)
Total disagree with the article
Kunal Valecha (pune)
Article just for the sake of posting
S R (Mysore)
Good analysis. This is an informative article.
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