[原创][ 美国 每日野兽报 ] 突破中国网络长城

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Breaking ThroughChina’sGreat Firewall

突破中国网络防火长城

Can the US and EU use the WTO to haltBeijing’sblocks on Google, the New York Times and other sites?

美国和欧盟能否利用WTO规则阻止北京对谷歌、纽约时报、及其他网站的封锁?

By Kevin Holden July 30, 2014

铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图

China blocks its 600 million Web usersfrom joining the global Facebook generation, using Google’s search engine, orreading about the Nobel Peace Prize award to Tibet’s Dalai Lama. Image Credit: Kevin Holden

中国阻止本国6亿网民访问Facebook,使用谷歌引擎,或阅读诺贝尔和平奖获得者XZ达 赖的相关信息。图片来源:凯文霍顿

BEIJING – Beijing’sleaders haltingly opened connections to the Internet toward the close of thelast century. Since then, though, they have been constantly fortifying the Great Firewall that encircles China and censorsinformation flowing into the long-isolated country.

This Chinese wall now blocks more than 18,000 websites operated across the planet, and ispatrolled by tens of thousands of cyber-sentries, according to scholars in theUnited States and Europe who closely track Beijing’s Internet securitystructures.

But these experts also say many of China’s digital barricadesviolate World Trade Organization rules, and believe that the U.S. and the EUshould challenge Beijing before the WTO’s disputeresolution council.

China’s walling itself off fromsocial media sites including Twitter and the video-sharingchannel YouTube contravenes WTO principles on free trade and open marketaccess, says Aynne Kokas, an expert on Chinese Internet policies at RiceUniversity in Texas.

北京– 近上世纪结束以来,北京一直对开放互联网保持迟疑态度。从那时起,他们围绕着中国不断强化网络防火墙和信息审查,使该国长期陷入孤岛当中。

如今,这个中国长城挡住了遍布世界各地的,超过一万八千多个网站,并由数以万计的网络巡警值守,据美国学者和欧洲一些密切跟踪北京的网络安全组织透漏。

然而,这些专家还说,中国(设置)的许多数字化屏障违反了世界贸易组织的规则,并认为,美国和欧盟应先于WTO委员会解决争议之前向北京发起挑战。

中国防火墙自绝于社交媒体之外,包括如Twitter 、视频共享网站YouTube等,违反了WTO自由贸易和开放市场准入原则。德克萨斯,莱斯大学,中国互联网政策专家,圣安妮科卡斯说道。

Kokas points out thatBeijing’sunjustified blockade on American Internet outfits, combinedwith the rise of their Chinese counterparts, like webloghosting site Sina and YouTube lookalike Youku, in the U.S. market has createdmassively unequal playing fields in the two countries.

This growing imbalance, she adds, iscertain to expand the American trade gap with China, which hit $318 billion in2013.

While China prevents its 600 millionInternet users from joining the global Facebook generation, she says in an interview,its own rising powers on the Web are not only free to operate across the U.S.,but also have raised more than $40 billion on U.S. stock exchanges.

The U.S. should move to extend its recent victory in the WTO’s dispute settlementforum, which ruledin 2012that Chinese barriers to the import anddistribution of American audio-visual products, films, music, books andnewspapers all violated WTO rules. Kokas says the U.S. TradeRepresentative should file a new complaint to obtain a similar injunctionagainst Chinese controls on Web-based video, media, and communicationplatforms.

科卡斯指出,北京毫无缘由地对美国互联网公司进行封锁,还联手扶持他们国内类似的互联网企业,像博客托管网站新浪、类似YouTube的优酷网,两国间的这种不公平游戏规则对美国市场造成了极大的伤害。

他还补充说,这种愈来愈严重的不平衡,必然会拉大美中之间的贸易逆差,这种逆差在2013年已上升至3180亿美元,

她在接受采访时表示,正值中国阻止国内6亿网民迈进全球facebook时代,这个自身不断成长的网络大国不仅可在美国恣意经营,而且还通过美国股票交易所筹集了超过400多亿美元资金。

美国应该在WTO的争议裁决中加大致胜的砝码,在2012年的裁决中,中国对进口商品以及分布在美国的视听产品,电影,音乐、书籍和报纸设置的壁垒全部违反了WTO规则。科卡斯说美国贸易代表应该对中国为控制网络视频、媒体和交流平台等存在的相关禁令,提出新控告。

The WTO forum can likewise be used tocontest the censorship the Chinese government wields against informationchannels like Google, say Brussels-based scholars Fredrik Erixon and HosukLee-Makiyama, co-directors of the European Centre for InternationalPolitical Economy.

The Internet is an integral part of theglobal marketplace that China joined when it became a WTO member by agreeing toopen and liberalize its economy, they say. And Beijing specificallypledged to create unrestricted market access for online data processingservices like search engines upon entering the global trade group.

Beijing’s bans on foreign informationplatforms, e-mail systems and photo-sharing sites are all likely to be ruledviolations of WTO precepts mandating equal treatment for foreign and domesticfirms, says Erixon, a leading European economist and former advisor to theSwedish prime minister.

The European Union should coordinatewith the U.S. to launch a joint battle in the global trade forum to halt thesebans, he says.

European outfits frozen out ofChina’smarket include portions of the sites operated by British Broadcasting Corp. andthe Norwegian-based Nobel Peace Prize, along with the Paris-basedInternationalHerald Tribune. On the Peace Prizesite, the sections covering the award being bestowed upon Tibet’s Dalai Lama in 1989, and upon Chinese democracy leader Liu Xiaobo in 2010 are blocked.

Since Fredrik Erixon and HosukLee-Makiyama began conducting a series of studies on how best to challengeChina’scyber-bans, sections of their European Centre’swebsite, including their paper“Digital Authoritarianism: Human Rights,Geopolitics and Commerce,” have likewise becomehidden behind China’s digital blockade.

同样,对于中国政府利用审查制度抵制信息渠道,如谷歌,可以利用WTO法庭争取胜利,布鲁塞尔欧洲国际政治经济中心主管学者艾瑞克森和李-牧山浩石说道,

他们说道,互联网是全球商业活动的基石,中国自加入WTO并成为其成员的那刻,就等同于同意开放和经济自由化。而且对于进入全球贸易集团的在线数据处理服务,如搜索引擎,中国对不受限的市场准入做过明确承诺。

北京针对国外信息平台,电子邮件系统和图片共享网站颁布的禁令,同样违反了WTO规定要求的对国外企业平等对待的原则。欧洲首席经济学家、瑞典首相前顾问、艾瑞克森说道。

欧盟应协同美国在全球贸易论坛上统一战线共同制止这些禁令,他说。

欧洲已把中国市场排挤在外,其中包括英国广播公司(BBC),和挪威的诺贝尔和平奖的网站(页面)操作部分,还有位于巴黎的《国际先驱论坛报》。在诺贝尔和平奖网站上,其中列着在1989年被授予和平奖的XZ达 赖喇 嘛,和在2010年被授予的中国民主领袖刘X波。

此后,艾瑞克森和李-牧山浩石开始对如何有效地挑战中国网络禁令进行了一系列研究,在他们的欧洲分部中心网站页面上,写着的“数字化独裁:人权,地缘政治和商业,”也同样在其后经过中国数字化处理隐匿掉了。

China’scyber-borderguards lead the world in terms of crushing individual and commercial onlinefreedoms, says Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, a legalscholar who wasa senior adviser on WTO issuesto the EU leadership.

Comparing Beijing’s Great Firewall tothe heavily armed Berlin Wall, Lee-Makiyama says: “Chinahas very stringent laws on Internet cafes, on online publications and onwebsites operated across the country.”

“Now China is trying tomake this domestic system global,” he saysduring an interview in Beijing.

Beijing is nowreviewing schemes that would require foreign-based Internet contentproviders, like their Chinese counterparts, to closely collaborate with theChinese authorities in the prevailing censorship regime if they want to operatein China. But this regime of ICP licenses, he says, is also likely to be struckdown by the WTO.

And any global website operator enteringinto a Faustian agreement to become integrated into China’s machinery ofcensorship does so at its own peril.

On launching their China-based www.google.cn search engine, the leaders of Google reluctantlyagreed to block search results for queries like “Tiananmen Square Massacre.”

During an escalatingseries of clashes with their Communist censorship overseers whileoperating this Google China site, Google’s leadershipin California suddenly discovered that battalions of highly organized Chinesehackers had invaded the group’s central servers in theU.S. and attempted to break into the Gmail accounts of Chinese human rightsactivists.

While shadowing and investigating theseinvaders, “what was discovered was a highly sophisticated industrial attack onGoogle’s intellectual property coming from China,” recounted Eric Schmidt, Google’s executive chairman, and Jared Cohen, head of Google Ideas, intheir jointly authored bookThe New Digital Age. “Over the course of Google’s investigation,it gathered sufficient evidence to know that the Chinese government or itsagents were behind the attack.”

中国的网络巡警压制了世界上的个性表达和商业网络自由。法律学者、WTO问题专家李-牧山浩石向欧盟领导说道。

北京的防火长城好比像全副武装的柏林墙,李-牧山说:“中国对网吧、在线出版物和国内运营的网站有着非常严格的法律”。

“中国好像是在打造国内局域网系统”他在北京接受采访时说道。

北京当前的审查方案规定,国外互联网内容提供商应与他们的中国同行那样,在当前审查制度下与中国政府密切合作,如果他们想在中国经营下去的话。但这个政府的ICP许可证,他说,也很可能会被WTO否决掉。

然而,任何全球网站运营商为进入中国市场而签下浮士德式的协议(出卖灵魂)与中国审查机器融为一体,这是把自己置于危境之地。

为推出中国版的谷歌搜索引擎,谷歌领导人勉强同意滤掉诸如“TAM“的搜索结果。

其间,在他们审查监督下一系列问题不断升级,正值谷歌中国运营之时,加利福尼亚谷歌领导层突然发现,具有高度组织的中国黑客入侵了该企业位于美国的中央服务器,试图进入中国人权活动人士的Gmail帐户。

随后对这些入侵者暗中调查,“调查发现,这是来自中国针对谷歌知识产权高度复杂的工业化入侵”,谷歌执行董事长,埃里克施密特和谷歌创意总监,贾里德科恩,在其合著新书《数字新时代》里有详尽描述。

“谷歌在调查过程中,收集的足够证据表明,是中国政府或它的代理人在背后实施了攻击。”

In a series ofsecret cables sent to then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, later publishedby WikiLeaks, diplomats stationed at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing reported theoverall attack on Google was being led by the ruling Politburo of the ChineseCommunist Party.

The CCP’s dual-front attacks onGoogle – by blocking its website across China whilesimultaneously hacking into its U.S. servers and e-mail system – have since been repeated against The New York Timesfollowing its report on the fabulous family fortune of one Chinese Politburomember, and against The Wall Street Journal for reports onanother leader who fell from the top of China’s pyramidof power.

These blocks on American newsorganizations, says Lee-Makiyama, also are likely to be judged impermissibleunder WTO rules.

Anger over China’s barricading itsInternet market to leading American companies like Google, and at ongoingChinese cyber-attacks on U.S. companies and government organizations, isgrowing in Washington.

In June of 2013, in a special session of the Congressional-ExecutiveCommission on China convened to focus on Chinese hacking, Representative ChrisSmith testified that his own Congressional office computers had beeninfiltrated by Chinese hackers searching through documents on human rights violations in China and on his proposed Global OnlineFreedom Act. “Cyber attacks onCongress are only a small, but not insignificant, partof a much larger pattern of attacks that have targeted the executive branch,the Pentagon, and American businesses,” stated Smith,the commission’s cochairman. “Inrecent months we have seen in-depth reports come out detailing thismassive intrusion into our cyberspace and massive theft of our cyber data.Chinese agents have stolen our designs for helicopters, ships, fighter jets,and several missile defense systems.”

“We now know with somecertainty,”he added, “that some thefts are being organized by theChinese Government agencies.”

后来维基解密披露,时任国务卿希拉收到一系列机密电传,据美国驻北京大使馆的外交官透露,指使对谷歌实施全面攻击的是中共政治局

中国政党对谷歌实施双线攻击——通过阻断谷歌通向中国,同时,对美国服务器和电子邮件系统实施入侵——《纽约时报》透漏,在其报道政治局家庭成员财产信息时曾遭到多次阻止,还阻止《华尔街日报》报道已卸任的另一位高官信息。(这里请看原文)

李-牧山说,这些遭到阻止的美国新闻机构,在WTO规则下同样也会判为不允许。

2013年6月,针对中国黑客召开的一次常务委员会特别会议上,代表克里斯史密斯证实,他的国会办公室电脑已被中国黑客所渗透,他们在搜寻中国侵犯人权文件和他草拟的《全球互联网自由法案》。

“国会遭到的网络攻击损失很小,虽危害不大,但这只是针对行政部门,五角大楼以及美国企业实施更大规模攻击中的冰山一角“,该委员会主席,史密斯说。

“近几个月,我们看到的深度报道详细披露出,这种大规模的入侵已深入到我们的网络空间,而且大量网络数据被窃。中国间谍偷了我们的直升机,船只,战斗机,和几种导弹防御系统的设计图纸”。

他补充说,“现在我们知道某些失窃案和中国政府有必然联系“。

In an earlier hearing, he stated: “Chinais one of the most repressive and restrictive countries when it comes to the control of the Internet and the impact goes farbeyond the commerciallosses of U.S. companies that want toparticipate in that market.” China, he added, has clearly “failedto comply with its WTO commitments.”

Because the commission Smith co-headshas closely tracked China’sweb of cyber-censorship, attacks on Google, and squadrons of People’s Liberation Army hackers, the commission’s website is naturally blocked in China.

In the first major American counter-offensive againstChina’s cyber-soldiers, the U.S. Department of Justicerecently unveiled a 31-count indictment of five People’s Liberation Army officers – all based at a secret Shanghaimilitary complex – who have been charged with hackinginto the servers of American outfits including nuclear power plant designerWestinghouse Electric Co, engaging in cyber-espionage, and stealing high-valueintellectual property.

“This is a case allegingeconomic espionage by members of the Chinese military and represents thefirst-ever charges against a state actor for this type of hacking,” said U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder.

This new American resolve to publiclyconfront Chinese hackers could also portend a growing willingness in Washingtonto challenge the Great Firewall in the WTO.

Yet Andrew Nathan, an expert on ChineseInternet censorship policies at Columbia University, suggests that Beijingmight balk at a WTO ruling that strikes down its barriers toAmerican newspapers, British news sites and Google’s provision of accessto information across the World Wide Web.

在之前的听证会上,他说:“中国是最专制和最受限制的国家之一,他们对互联网的控制和影响远远超出了,美国公司参与不到这个市场而失去的经济损失。”中国,他补充说,显然“未能遵守其WTO承诺。”

由于该委员会联席负责人史密斯一直在密切关注中国网络审查,谷歌攻击事件,和解放军黑客部队,该委员会的网站自然把中国阻挡在外。

对于中国网军,美国首次进行了重大反击——美国司法部最近对犯下31项罪名的5名解放军军官公之于众——总部位于上海的一个军事综合楼——他们被指控非法进入美国公司服务器,包括核电设计西屋电气公司,从事网络间谍活动,盗取高价值的知识产权。

“这个案列对涉嫌经济间谍活动的中国军方和代表,首次对一个国家的这种黑客行为提出指控“美国司法部长埃里克霍尔德说到。

美国开始决心公开对抗中国黑客,可能预示着华盛顿越来越想在WTO框架内挑战这个防火长城。

然而,哥伦比亚大学,中国互联网审查政策制度研究专家,安得烈内森认为,北京可能会拒绝WTO裁定废除对美国报纸,英国新闻网站和通过网络获取信息的谷歌所设置的障碍。

“I believe that informationcontrol is too important for the Chinese government to sacrifice it,” says Nathan, who also heads Columbia’s Center for the Study of Human Rights.

But the co-directors of the EuropeanCentre for International Political Economy say the chances of China’s refusing to complywith a WTO decision against its cyber-blockades are virtually zero. China’s reputation as a member in good standing of the global group is tooimportant, they say, to jeopardize in any way.

The WTO is the leading guardian of China’s expansion into atrading superpower, they add, with the People’sRepublic’s worldwide trade surpassing $4 trillion lastyear.

With the stakes so high, China cannotafford to risk being seen as resisting the group’s rules and rulings.

我相信,信息控制,中国政府为此做出的付出非常重要,同时还主管哥伦比亚人权研究中心的内森说。

但欧洲国际政治经济中心主任说,中国拒绝WTO对其网络封锁的判决几率几乎为零。中国作为全球集团的一员遵纪守法,注重信誉,他们说过,(信誉)不容损毁。

WTO是中国发展成为超级贸易大国的有力保障,他们补充说,中国去年全球贸易额超过4万亿美元。中国无法承受被视为抗拒该组织规则和裁决所带来的风险。

Kevin Holden is a Beijing-based writeron science and technology topics. 作者:凯文霍顿。bluebit:译

——正文结束,因字数限制评论有点少——

Be Way 4 days ago

I think it'll be even better if WTO canorder U.S military to pull out of Asia and go home.

我认为WTO要是能令美军撤出亚洲然后回家会更好~

Unfolding Universe Fre Okin 4 days ago

"Facebook, Twitter, Google,NYTimes, Wall Street Journal etc." all have servers for their sites, andchina will not permit spying from the US.

“facebook,推特,谷歌,纽约时报,华尔街日报等等”到处都有他们的网站,而中国是不想被美国监视。

Fre Okin Unfolding Universe 4 days ago

Remember Cicso, IBM they have back doorto NSA, anyway this is reasonable suspicion.

别忘了思科,IBM都有通向NSA的后门,怎样都有理由怀疑。

mcastro Fre Okin 2 days ago

It's one thing to ban Cisco or otherswho make hardware because of suspected NSA spying, but banning google andfacebook will most likely cause problems.

因为怀疑NSA监视而禁止思科或其硬件厂商厂家硬件(还情有可原),但禁掉谷歌和facebook是闹哪样啊。

mcastro John_Z 2 days ago

This is the WTO, if you aren't going toabide by the rules, then don't become a WTO signatory. Very Simple.

这是WTO,如果你不想遵守它的规则,那么就别成为WTO签约国。很简单

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

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WTO不是你们的万能工具,是不是哪天你们就要说中国的政体也要听从WTO的安排了啊?去你娘的吧!洋鬼子!

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23楼gy1986

我以前也常翻墙,国外网站的有些言论简直没法看,各种丑化妖魔化中国。从那时候我就发现,哪国的媒体都是用来给普通民众洗脑的,比较可悲的是,国内很多媒体逐渐成了西方给中国老百姓洗脑的工具,宣传部门的工作简直弱爆了!

貌似今天英国封锁了10000多个网站

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