[原创]美彭博社:撤退后,中国谋求海上大国地位

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China Seeks Great Power Status After Sea Retreat

撤退后,中国谋求海上大国地位

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-07-02/china-seeks-great-power-status-after-centuries-of-sea-retreat.html?cmpid=yhoo

By David Tweed Jul 3, 2014 5:00 AM GMT+0800铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图



Source: China Photos/Getty Images

A replica of the ship sailed by Zheng He in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province,China.

图片来源:China Photos/Getty Images

中国江苏南京,郑和下西洋所用船只的复制品

Admiral Zheng He is everywhere in China these days, eventhough he died almost 600 years ago. The government is promoting him to remindits people -- and Asia -- thatChina’s destiny is to be a great naval power.

尽管600年前就去世了,但郑和在当今中国仍随处可见。中国政府宣扬郑和,旨在提醒中国人和亚洲:中国的命运是成为海上强国。

Almost a century before Christopher Columbusdiscovered America, Zheng in 1405 embarked on a series of voyages withships of unrivaled size and technical prowess, reaching as far as India and Africa.

在哥伦布发现美洲大陆约一个世纪前,郑和就开始了一系列规模无与伦比且技术非凡的海上航行,还到达过印度河非洲。

The expeditions are in the spotlight in official commentsand state media as China lays claim to about 90 percent of the South China Seaand President Xi Jinping seeks to revive China’s maritime pride. In doing so herisks setting up confrontations with Southeast Asian neighbors and the U.S.,whose navy has patrolled the region since World War II. Geopolitical dominanceof the South China Sea would give China control of one of the world’s mosteconomically and politically strategic areas.

随着中国声称拥有约90%的南海主权以及习总谋求重振中国的海上骄傲,远征成为官方评论的焦点。习总这样做是建立在与东南亚邻国和美国冲突的风险上,二战后中国海军曾巡逻过该区域。南海的地缘政治优势将使中国控制世界上最经济最有政治战略的区域之一。

“The Chinese believe they have the right to be a greatpower,” said Richard Bitzinger, a senior fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School ofInternational Studies in Singapore.“What we are seeing is a hardening of China’s stance about its place in theworld.”

“中国人相信他们有权利成为强国”, 新加坡拉惹勒南国际研究院的高级研究员RichardBitzinger说,“我们看到是一个强硬的中国站在世界舞台上。”


Stretching from Taiwan toward Singapore, abouthalf of the world’s merchant tonnage flows through the region, carrying about $5.3 trillion of goods each year, from iron ore and oil to computersand children’s toys. Some 13 million barrels of oil a day transited the Straitsof Malacca in 2011, about one third of global oil shipments. The sea lanescurrently lack a dominant overseer, with the U.S., China and neighboringnations all having a presence.

从台湾到新加坡,全球商船约有一半经过该区域,每年携带了5.3万亿美元货物,包括铁矿石、石油、电脑和玩具。2011年,有些时候一天有1300万桶石油经过马六甲海峡,这相当于全球石油运输的1/3。目前,这条航线缺乏一个占主导地位的监督者,因为美国中国和周边国家都占有一席之地。铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图


Photographer: Oanh Ha/Bloomberg

The captain of Vietnamese Coast Guard vessel No. 8003 is flanked by aChinese Coast Guard ship, left, in disputed waters claimed by both China andVietnam west of the Paracel islands, Vietnam, on May 15, 2014. China in earlyMay towed a $1 billion oil exploration rig into contested waters near theParacel Islands off Vietnam, sparking skirmishes between coast guard vessels,the sinking of a Vietnamese fishing boat and anti-Chinese demonstrations

摄影师:Oanh Ha/Bloomberg

2014年5月15日,越南8003号海警船船长位于中国海警船的两侧,要求其离开西沙群岛的争议海域。5月初,中国在西沙群岛附近的争议海域建造了价值10亿美元的石油钻井,引发了海警船的冲突,一艘越南渔船沉没,以及越南反中国示威游行。



OverlappingClaims

主张重叠

China’s claim is based on a 1947 map, with a more recentversion following a line of nine dashes shaped like a cow’s tongue, loopingdown to a point about 1,800 kilometers (1,119 miles) south from the coast ofHainan island. The area overlaps claims from Vietnam, Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei and Taiwan. In theadjacent East China Sea,China contests islands administered by Japan.

中国的主张是以一张1947年的地图为依据。最新的地图:像牛舌的九段线,循环到了距离海南岛南部海岸约1800公里(1119英里)的一个点。该区域重叠的主张来自于越南、马来西亚、菲律宾、文莱和台湾。在邻近的东海,中国争夺被日本管理的钓鱼岛。

铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图


The ambitions of China’s leaders don’t stop at thenine-dash line.

中国领导人的野心不会停在九段线上。

“China’s ultimate long-term goal is to obtain parity withU.S. naval capacity in the Pacific,” said Willy Wo-Lap Lam, adjunct professorat the Centre for China Studies at the ChineseUniversity of Hong Kong. “This is a long-term proposition. At this stagethe Chinese understand they don’t have the capacity to take on the U.S.head-on.”

“中国长期的最终目标是获得与美国海军在太平洋对等的权利”,香港大学中国研究中心客串教授林和立说,“这是一个长期命题。现阶段中国知道没有正面对上美国的能力。”

‘ChineseDNA’

中国的DNA

Sensing the U.S. is distracted by foreign policy challengesin the Middle East andUkraine, China has been ratcheting up pressure on its neighbors, Lam said. Itseized control of the Scarborough Shoal from the Philippines in 2012 as Chineseships “shooed away” their rivals.

林和立称,有感于美国被中东乌克兰的外交挑战分散了精力,中国已经加大了对其邻国的施压。中国从菲律宾手上夺取了斯卡伯勒浅滩的控制权,而2012年中国船却被对手“赶走了”。

China in early May towed a $1 billion oil exploration riginto contested waters near the Paracel Islands off Vietnam, sparking skirmishesbetween coast guard vessels, the sinking of a Vietnamese fishing boat andanti-Chinese demonstrations. In an attempt to soothe tensions, Premier Li Keqiang said June 18 that“expansion is not in the Chinese DNA” and that talks can ensure stability inthe region.

5月初,中国在西沙群岛附近的争议海域建造了价值10亿美元的石油钻井,引发了海警船的冲突,一艘越南渔船沉没,以及越南反中国示威游行。为了缓和紧张关系,李克强6月18日说,“扩张不是中国的DNA”,谈判可以确保该区域的稳定。

“The charm rhetoric is still there but the actions speaklouder than words and unfortunately the actions are scaring the hell out of Southeast Asia,” saidErnest Bower, senior adviser at the Center for Strategic and InternationalStudies in Washington.“It looks to Southeast Asia like China has taken off the gloves,” he said via apodcast on June 11 as CSIS released its report “Decoding China’s Emerging ‘Great Power’ Strategy in Asia.”

“言辞仍然花言巧语,但事实胜于雄辩,并且这些举动不幸地吓坏了东南亚”, 华盛顿智库战略与国际研究中心资深顾问Ernest Bower说,“看起来中国在东南亚已经放开了手脚”。6月11日Ernest Bower通过CSIS的博客发布了报告:《解码中国在亚洲的新型大国关系》。

‘Great Rejuvenation’

“伟大复兴”

China is backing its assertiveness with a campaign ofhistorical justification based on Zheng’s voyages.

基于郑和下西洋,中国支撑其自信以及远征的历史依据

The admiral’s first fleet numbered more than 255 vesselsand carried 27,000 crew, mostly soldiers. Flanked by his flotilla, Zhengproclaimed China’s glory andaffirmed “China’s dominant geopolitical standing in the China Seasand Indian Ocean,” according to the Hong Kong Maritime Museum.

根据香港海事博物馆,郑和的第一舰队共有255多艘船和27000名船员,其中大多数船员是士兵。在舰队的陪同下,郑和显示了中国的繁荣昌盛,以及证实了“中国在中国海和印度洋占据地缘政治的主导地位。”

The project ended in 1433, after Zheng died and a newemperor bristled at the cost of the expeditions amid threats to China’snorthern land frontier. The move suspended China’s state-backed long-rangenaval aspirations for 500 years.

在郑和逝世以及新皇恼怒远征费用(中国北方边境有威胁)后,下西洋项目终止于1433年。此举延缓了中国的远程海军梦想500多年。

Liu Cigui, the head of China’s coast guard, invoked Zhengin a June 8 article arguing that rebuilding maritime poweris an essential part of the “great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.” Xi incorporatedthat phrase in his “Chinese Dream” speech in March last year when he set 2049,the 100th anniversary of Communist rule, as a target for China to restoreitself to economic, political and cultural primacy in Asia.

中国海警的负责人刘赐贵6月8日援引郑和,发表了一篇文章称:重建海上强国是“中华民族伟大复兴”的重要组成部分。习总在去年3月的“中国梦”演讲中也说过这样的话:当2049年建国100周年时,中国的目标是恢复在亚洲的经济政治和文化的主导地位。

Opium Wars

鸦片战争

He has since then emphasized the damage inflicted on Chinaby foreign powers like the U.K. which annexed territory in the century thatfollowed the Opium Wars of the mid-19th century.

习总曾强调英国等外国势力给中国造成的损害。在19世纪中期的鸦片战争后,这些国家并吞了中国的领土。

“We should never forget this humiliating history,” Xi said on June 27. “We shouldremember our mission, and improve our land and maritime frontier work in asteady way.” Xi spoke at the fifth National Land and Maritime Frontier WorkingConference.

习总6月27日说,“我们永远不会忘记这个屈辱的历史”。他在第五届全国陆地和海洋边界工作会议上还说,“我们要牢记使命,用稳定方式扩大我们的陆地海洋边界。”

“National prestige matters particularly to the Chinesebecause they have been a great imperial power,” said Robert D. Kaplan, thechief geopolitical analyst for Austin, Texas-based Stratfor Global Intelligenceand author of ‘‘Asia’s Cauldron,’’ which examines the risks to regionalstability of China’s rise. China is “promoting the historical memory” ofZheng’s voyages to justify its claims, he said.

“国威,特别是中国国威非常重要,因为中国已经成为强大的帝国”, 奥斯汀的首席地缘政治分析家Robert D. Kaplan说。Stratfor GlobalIntelligence总部位于德克萨斯州,而Robert D. Kaplan是“Asia’s Cauldron(书名)”的作者,主要研究中国崛起的区域稳定风险。他说,中国宣扬郑和下西洋的历史是为了证明其主张。

Oil and Gas

石油和天然气

The SouthChina Sea is rich in resources, with the U.S. Energy Information Administration estimating itcontains 11 billion barrels of oil and 190 trillion cubic feet of natural gasin proved and probable reserves. That would be enough to replace China’scrude-oil imports for five years and gas imports for the next century,according to data compiled by Bloomberg. Reserves in disputed areas have yet tobe tapped in scale.

南海资源丰富。据美国能源信息管理局估计,南海的探明储量有110亿桶石油,190万亿立方英尺天然气。根据彭博汇编的数据,这足以取代中国5年的原油进口以及下个世纪的天然气进口。争议区域的储量规模还有待发掘。

With an area of at least 3.5 million square kilometers, the seas contain several hundred smallislands, rocks and reefs, most located in the Paracel and Spratly Islandchains. Many are submerged at full tide and are little more than shippinghazards.

至少有一个350万平方公里的海域,它包含了几百个小岛、岩石和珊瑚礁,并且大部分位于西沙群岛和南沙群岛。许多小岛岩石和珊瑚礁在涨潮时被淹没,并且引发了更多的航运风险。

In and around these rocks, shoals and islands lives anothervaluable resource: enough fish to comprise about 10 percent of the globe’stotal catch, according to the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.

根据东南亚语言发展中心,在岩石、滩涂和岛屿的内部及四周,还生存着另一张宝贵资源:足够的鱼类,占世界总渔获量的10%。

Even with large swathes of the sea in dispute, othercountries manage to cooperate. Indonesia,Malaysia and Singapore work together to maintain the security of the MalaccaStrait. In May, the Philippines and Indonesia resolved a disagreement over seaboundaries.

甚至于大片有争议的海域,都有其他国家共管。马来西亚和新加坡共同维护马六甲海峡的安全。5月,菲律宾和印度尼西亚解决了海岸线的分歧。

Security Shield

安全屏障

The sea plays a strategic role for China: it’s a naturalsecurity shield for its densely populated southern regions and ports.

南海对中国具有重要的战略意义:它是人口稠密的南部地区和港口的天然安全屏障。

To pursue its claims, China has stepped up coordinationamong its agencies. The restructured StateOceanic Administration was established in July 2013, bringing maritime lawenforcement bodies together into a centralized coast guard.

为推行其声称,中国已经加强了机构协调。重组后的国家海洋局于2013年7月成立,使海事执法机构集中于中国海警局。

China’s navy is modernizing and is expanding a base atYalong Bay at the southern tip of Hainan Island, off China’s southern coast.The facility has two piers, each a kilometer (0.6 mile) long, to service surface ships. Four 230-meter piersaccommodate submarines, along with an underwater tunnel, according to FelixChang, a senior fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute inPhiladelphia.

中国海军正在现代化,扩大海南岛南端的亚龙湾基地。工厂有两个码头,每个1公里(0.6英里)长,为水面舰艇服务。根据费城外交政策研究所高级研究员Felix Chang,连同水下隧道,四个230长的码头可容纳舰艇。

‘Undermining Alliances’

动摇联盟”

While the base is close enough to the Paracel Islands tosupport large-scale naval and air activities, the Spratlys in the south of theSouth China Sea are too far away for China to control, according to Ian Storey,senior fellow at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore.

根据新加坡东南亚研究所高级研究员Ian Storey, 亚龙湾基地足够靠近西沙群岛,以支持庞大的海空军的行动。而南沙群岛则位于南海南部,离中国太远了难以控制。

The distance may explain why China is building artificialislands in the Spratlys area, by reclaiming land around the Johnson South Reef,according to Philippine fishermen and officials in the area. Such islands couldhelp anchor China’s claims and be developed into bases from which it would beable to mount a continuous presence, challenging the Philippines, a U.S. treatyally.

根据该区域的菲律宾渔民和官员,这个距离可以解释通过收回南礁,中国为什么要在南沙群岛上建造人工岛。这些人工岛可以帮助稳固中国的声明,并且被开发成能够持续存在的挑衅美国盟友菲律宾的基地。

“China is testing the limits of America’s alliancerelationships in Asia,” said Storey. “By pushing and probing and essentiallyshowing that the U.S. isn’t willing to respond to these provocations, it isundermining those alliances and hence ultimately U.S. credibility and U.S.power over the long term.”

“中国正在检验美国与亚洲联盟的极限”, Storey说,“通过逼迫探索,从本质上显示美国不愿意应对这些挑衅,长期破坏美国亚洲联盟、美国的信誉以及美国的权利。”

There are two schools of thought on the eventual outcome ofChina’s ascendancy, according to Rory Medcalf, director of the InternationalSecurity Program at the Lowy Institute for International Policy in Sydney.

根据洛伊国际政策研究所悉尼国际安全项目主任Rory Medcalf,有关中国崛起最终有两种看法。

One argues that dominance of the South China Sea is aninevitable outcome of China’s economic and military expansion. The other saysthat China will have to curb its ambitions or risk provoking a conflict, evenwar, which could draw in the U.S.

一种认为中国统治南海是经济和军事扩张的必然结果。另一种说,中国必须遏制野心或引发冲突甚至于战争,这将引起美国注意。

It’s not possible to judge which scenario ends up provingright, said Medcalf. “The story is only beginning.”

“在不能判断哪些方案是正确的情况下,不可能作出评判”, Medcalf说,“故事才刚刚开始。”

美网友评论:

CalvinWong • 4 hours ago

The world had to be united once again to fight against theevil communist !!

世界必须再度联手对抗邪恶的共产主义!!

Motherland'sInterest • 4 hours ago

We do not need to seek. We are, and will be there more andmore

我们不需要谋求海上大国地位。我们现在就是海上大国,并会越来越强。

clip_six • 5 hours ago

Free Tibet and liberate Hong Kong from China.

让西藏和香港从中国解放。


AlexTeng • 9 hours ago

That's funny that China now thinks the Indian ocean belongsto them too. Surprised they haven't claimed the Atlantic yet.

真有趣,中国现在认为印度洋也属于他们。很奇怪他们没有声称大西洋属于中国。

OkasaMisa • 10 hours ago

China getting rich just because...steal, copycat..techspy..this article make shine of china it make me laugh so hard....brainwashed

by china or writer for hire maybe

中国发财是因为窃取、山寨和高科技间谍。本文如此凸显中国,笑死我了。也许是被中国或写手洗脑了。

AlPugZ • 20 hours ago

IF WE WANT TO STOP CHINA, WE SHOULD NOT WAIT YEAR 2049.LET'S FIGHT THEM BY NOT BUYING CHEAP, NO QUALITY MADE IN CHINA PRODUCTS! boom!CHINA LOSES ITS TEETH FOR THEIR AMBITIONS!

如果我们想阻止中国,那就不能等到2049年。通过不买廉价商品来打击中国,中国制造根本没有质量。中国失去了野心的獠牙。

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

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习总:我们将恢复中国在亚洲的政治、经济和文化等方面的主导地位!(+10086个赞)希望昔日的中央帝国可以在我们有生之年得以实现!

在“美国”的后面加上“鬼子”两个字!

让西藏和香港从中国解放。

就他妈这句话,就应该让美国解体!!!先他妈关心你自己吧

╭∩╮(︶︿︶)╭∩╮ 有种来咬我啊?看看你还能联合几国入侵中国!

如果霉锅佬反对中国基于郑和下西洋和历史对南海、东海的主张的话,那么请你们霉锅佬把你们的国土恢复成13各州,其他还给印第安人,把新墨西哥州还给墨西哥。

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