译文来源:原文地址:http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/opinion/comments-analysis/how-to-fix-manufacturing-follow-germany-not-china/articleshow/37107823.cms?intenttarget

How to fix manufacturing: Follow Germany,not China

如何解决制造业问题:效仿德国,而不是中国

India's manufacturing sector has been sickfor long. Despite the reforms of the 1990s, which boosted overall growth,India's manufacturing could not improve its competitiveness.

印度制造业长久以来都处于萎靡不振的状态。尽管90年代的改革促进了总体的增长,可印度的制造业始终无法提升自己的竞争力。

At 15% of GDP, it is much smaller than China's 30%, and smaller too thanGermany's 21%, though Germany has much higher wages and a much strongercurrency. The trust deficit between employees and managers within Indianmanufacturing enterprises, manifest in many incidents of industrial unrest,some resulting in deaths as well, does not bode well for a recovery.

印度制造业占GDP的比重为15%,远远落后于中国的30%,也低于德国的21%,而且德国的工资水平更高、币值也更高。印度企业中管理人员和职工之间的不信任反映在了很多行业动荡事件上,有些动荡事件还导致人员死亡,这不利于印度经济的恢复。

We need to understand root causes and should be careful that surgicalinterventions, such as recent demands to make it easier for employers to fireworkers, do not make the patient even worse.

我们需要了解这其中的根本原因,而且要确保我们所采取的一些措施——比如最近提出的雇主可以更加容易裁掉员工的要求——不会使情况得到恶化。

Different Roads

不同的道路

Some suggest that we should aim for what China has: very large, labourintensivefactories such as Foxconn's , which employ many thousands of people on a singlesite. For this, they urge the new government to amend India's land and labourlaws. We may have the same vision as China , but our paths to it will have tobe different, because our starting points are very different.

有些人认为我们应该追随中国的做法:建立大型的劳动密集型的工厂,比如富士康,该公司雇佣了大量工人。为了达成这个目标,他们敦促印度新政府修改土地和劳动法。我们的目标可能和中国的一样,但是实现目标的方法可以不同,因为二者之间的起点就不一样。

China began by usurping all land rights to the state, and taking awaydemocratic freedoms to form associations and free speech. India took adifferent path, of giving land rights and enshrining democratic freedoms in itsConstitution.

中国通过土地国有化、消灭建立协会的民主自由以及自由言论权利等方式来开始发展经济。而印度采取的方式则不一样,把土地权利下放人民,在宪法中赋予人民以民主自由。

Now, the Chinese government is slowly giving some rights, which is easier to dothan taking away what is already given, which these economists are urgingIndia's leaders to do. If India has to change its laws, it must win the supportof people. For this, it needs good processes for engaging and consulting allstakeholders, not just political will to take decisions.

现在,中国政府开始渐渐下放一些权利,这比夺取已经赋予别人的东西要容易得多,现在这些经济学家也敦促印度领导人收回权利。如果印度要改变自己的法律的话,那就必须赢得人民的支持。为了实现这个目标,需要有一个良好的协商过程,并且需要咨询所有的利益攸关者的意见,而不能仅仅由政治意愿来做决定。

'Iron'ical Outcome

讽刺性的结果

Some say that the Prime Minister should emulate Margaret Thatcher, the"iron lady" who stamped on the unions . The surgery did not have ahappy ending. Britain's manufacturing sector became even weaker. It isBritain's financial services sector that grew with the freeing of markets.

有人认为印度总理应该效仿撒切尔夫人,这位铁娘子镇压工会。然而结局并不完满。使得英国的制造行业更加脆弱了。随着市场解禁而获得发展的是英国的金融服务业。

Germany has taken a different path to grow and compete in manufacturing : muchless confrontation, much more collaboration. Strong unions, with a place onhigh tables. Strong and responsible industrial associations. Consultationsmandated before laws are changed. An effort to maintain continuity ofemployment through recessions, and to use slack periods as opportunities tostrengthen skills, coming out of global lean periods even stronger than thecompetition, as Germany did from the recent meltdown.

德国在制造业的发展和竞争力上采取了不同的做法:更少的对抗,更多的合作。强大的工会,在权力榜上拥有一席之地。强大和负责任的行业协会。在法律被改变之前强制进行磋商。在经济衰退期采取采取措施保证就业的持续性,并利用萧条期作为提高技能的机会,从而变得更加强大,正如德国在最近的一次金融危机中所做的那样。

In the German way, skills of managers and workers, and the quality ofrelationships amongst them, are the sources of sustained global manufacturingcompetitiveness.

通过这些方式,经理人和劳动者的技能得到提升,二者的关系也保持良好,所以才使得德国在制造业上不断的保有全球竞争力。

India's democratic and political structures are more like Germany's thanChina's . Also, we would rather have the outcomes that Germany has obtained forits manufacturing sector than what Britain got from its confrontationalapproach. Recently, France changed its labour laws. The French ministerexplained it was easy for the government because the unions and employers,taking a lesson from Germany, rather than Britain , sat down and worked outtogether what should be done, which made the government's work easy.

印度的民主和政治结构更像德国而非中国。我们宁愿获得像德国那样的制造业竞争力,也不要获得英国那样因采取对抗策略而落得的下场。最近,法国改变了自己的劳动法。一名法国部长解释道这样一来政府就更轻松了,因为工会和工人——向德国学习,而非向英国学习——可以坐下来一起讨论应该做什么,这让政府的工作变得更加轻松了。

Shopfloor being the arbiter

工人才是关键所在

India's labour laws are antiquated , there are too many, and they are badlyadministered. The approach to the laws should follow three principles . One,simplify the laws and improve their administration: use technology , reduceprocedures, make processes transparent. This is a winwin for all, includingunderstaffed government departments.

印度的劳动法已经过时,劳动法条例繁多,而且执行混乱。修改劳动法应遵循以下三原则:1、简化劳动法并提高其可执行性,使用技术,减少程序,让过程更加透明。这对所有人都有好处,包括人力不足的政府部门。

Two, focus on improving regulations and industrial relations closer to theground, in states and in enterprises. Competitiveness springs not from nationallaws but from what actually happens within industrial clusters and enterprises.

2、加强管理和促进行业关系,不管是在各州中还是在企业中。竞争力并非来源于法律,而是来源于产业集群和企业。

Three, build better institutions of representation along with better processesfor consultation and collaboration . Such processes will not only build moretrust amongst stakeholders but also enable the right changes to the content ofthe laws that meet all stakeholder needs.

3、建立更好的代表机构,建立更好的磋商和合作程序。这样的程序不仅可以促进各方的信任,还能对法律进行更好的修改以满足各方的需求。

There is a lot of workers' unrest, arising from a trust deficit. But it is goodto know that in the last six months, the central trade unions and employers'federations have engaged , outside the glare of media attention , in a dialogueunder the aegis of the India Backbone Implementation Network, agovernment-sponsored initiative, to improve collaboration and find solutions toproblems that are the causes of this unrest.

由于信任的缺乏,导致发生了很多员工暴乱。但可喜可贺的是,在过去的6个月时间里,印度工会和雇主联盟在政府的协调下已经在进行磋商以加强合作并解决产生动乱的原因。

That includes uncontrolled use of contract labour on unfair terms in largeenterprises , suppression of labour unions and poor social security foremployees in small enterprises.

这些问题包括:在大企业中,以不公平的劳动条款不受控制的使用合同工,对工会的镇压,小企业员工缺乏社会保障等问题。

These have to be changed for manufacturing to grow. Hasty surgery by top-downlaw reforms will increase mistrust among workers and managements and weakenmanufacturing further.

如果制造业想得到发展,这些问题一定要解决。自上而下的对法律进行草率的修改只会增加员工和管理层之间的不信任,从而进一步阻碍制造业的发展。

评论翻译:

Amirthanathan Arulappan (Nagercoil)Brahmin chickens like you dare not even tryto play MAN's SPORT Soccer, . The Ghana players will like hell pulverize thechicken bones of the Brahmin boys to be sprinkled in Holy Ganga

你们这些婆罗门的胆小鬼都不敢玩男人的运动——足球。加纳运动员会把你们这些婆罗门胆小鬼球员的骨头粉碎,然后仍在恒河里。

Vijay Dani (India)In the minds of normal Indians nation hasno place. Everyone works for himself and his family. Our ties go maximum to themohalla where we stay. So we are not a committed force and thus lack expertise.Even German way of working will not work here because we are neither Germansnor Chinese. Foe example in pune one 30 metre under way is being made for last5 years and is still not ready. The reasons are poor contractors,corruption,poor workmanship, poor material, and no commitment. We have to findour own solution. Recently I was in china and saw the working of maglev train.Amazing!

在普通印度人心中,国家在他们心目中是没有位置的。每个人只会自己和自己家人工作。印度人作为整体来说并不坚定、缺乏决心,因此印度才缺乏专门技术。即使采用了德国的方式,依然没法在印度产生好结果,因为我们既非德国人也非中国人。举个例子,在印度的普纳市,一段30米长的地铁建了5年还没建好。原因在于承包商很烂,腐败,工程质量低劣,材料不合格,以及缺乏决心。我们要找到属于自己的解决方案。最近,我去了一趟中国,看到了磁悬浮列车的运作,真是惊人!

SahaGurudas (Delhi)The authority shall not be biased regardingcountry. The working system and work culture which produce increasing prospectsof manufacturing sector, may be of any country, shall be adopted and normalizedfor Indian industries.

如果某件东西关乎国家的发展,那么政府当局就不应该有偏见,只要是好的东西就应该借鉴。只要是有利于制造业发展的好的工作制度和工作文化,不管来自哪个国家,政府都应该借鉴过来以发展印度自己的产业。

Dilbagrai100Rai. (Chandigarh)None like Germany in the ManufacturingSector

在制造业方面,没有哪个国家比得上德国。

Lt.Col.(Retd) (BANGALORE)INDIA is a subcontinent. Germany is anation with tradition build by great personalities who could thinkstrategically and place their country's interests above their own party. We areyet to develop that culture. We cannot copy Chinese model either, because it isa totalitarian regime. We will have to make our own model, keeping in view ourlevel of expertise. However, the best practices from both in Indian back groundmust be our aim.

印度是一个次大陆。而德国拥有良好的传统,他们的领导人具备战略思维,把国家利益置于政党利益之上。而印度目前还缺乏这样的文化。我们也不能抄袭中国的模式,因为中国是个独裁政体。我们要建立起自己的模式,要记住我们自己现在处于什么水平上。然而,这两个国家的一些好的方法还是值得我们学习的。

Karthik C (Unknown)THIS IS REALLY A BEST THOUGHT...MANUFACTURING SECTOR SHOULD ONLY PUSH THE GDP.. SERVICE SECTOR SHOULD JUSTSUPPLEMENT IT

这个想法不错,制造业应该成为GDP的主力,服务业应该仅仅是补充。

KUmar Gururajan (Chennai)A good thought and certainly Germany iswhat we need to look at for just not fixing the manufacturing sector but also tobecome innovative and competitive. While legislation and politics on one handhas ruined Manufacturing sector , the other equally inward reason that has alsocontributed to woes of Manufacturing Sector is the our lack of quest forperfection. We seemed to be OK with something that is 90% OK and have acceptedit as fact of life. While we do have companies who are world leaders and arepassionate of perfection , most of the companies are more bothered about theoutput rather than correct output. This calls for a total change in the mindset- something Japan did in 1960s.

这篇文章的想法不错,向德国学习不仅是为了解决我们的制造业问题,也要向他们学习如何变得具有创新能力和竞争力。立法和政治是阻碍印度制造业发展的一部分原因,另一部分原因是我们缺乏对完美的追求。我们对90%完美的事物就已经很满意了,没想过让它变成100%完美。虽然我们的一些世界级的公司对追求完美非常热衷,但是我们大多数的公司只关心产出,而不关心这样的产出是否完美。所以有必要对我们的想法进行彻底的改变——就像日本60年代的做法。

GauravGupta (Bangalore, India)India should follow its own policy withgood lesson from their own and others. do not replicate one other countrymodel.

印度应该追随自己的政策,并吸取自己和其他国家的经验教训。不要复制别国的模式。

Joaquim (Ad) Replies To Gaurav GuptaIt should replicate work ethic and moralfrom japan , china , south korea

印度应该向日本中国韩国学习职业道德。

Daffa Daf (India)India can neither follow Germany or China.The Indian mind set has to change totally to come out of the mess India is in.The contribution of NDA is going to make the mind set worse. What Germany does.Germany makes high value, high value added products, with a massive Brainwashing that German products are superior . In the end products get a highervalue. What china does make products in very high volumes, at low prices , moreinnovative with near zero marketing cost. World buys china products , china donot market the products. The Indian attitude is make below china quality ,price it better than Germany. market aggressively , skim the market foolinggullible buyers. pay the politicians to block the out siders and get a captivemarket. Every thing in India from Govt, media, workers, owners need to changeto make manufacturing in India for world.

印度无法效仿德国,也无法效仿中国。印度要想改变目前的困境首先就得改变自己的想法。德国的做法是:制造高价值和高附加值的产品,并进行洗脑,说德国的产品是最好的,最终,德国产品获得了高价值。中国的做法是:进行大规模的生产,价格低,产品更具创意,营销成本几乎是0,全世界都在购买中国产品,但中国并没有对产品进行营销。.而印度的做法是:产品质量比中国差,价格比德国产品高,并进行大量的市场营销,愚弄易受骗的买家,贿赂政治家以阻碍外来竞争者的进入,从而获得垄断市场。印度所有东西都需要改变,包括政府,媒体,工人,雇主,这样才能使印度制造业走向世界。

Balu Iyer (Unknown) RepliesTo Daffa DafHow right ! We should concentrate onQuality , Volumes will get churned out if the right investments are made

楼上说得在理!我们应该关注质量,一旦我们做出正确的投资,产量自然会上去。

DaljitSingh (Unknown)It has to be more innovative model, mix andmatch of Germany and China's model. Following footsteps of only Germany orChina won't help.

印度应该追随更具创意性的模式。把德国和中国模式进行混合搭配。单单追随德国或者中国的脚步是帮不了印度的。

Ram Joshi (NewDelhi)Article overlooks the lack of trainedworkers in the Indian markets, without which the Indian manufacturing segmentcan not be even fractionally competitive as Germany has been. Germany has arobust system of apprenticeship which ties in neatly with the education systemallowing students to acquire vocational and technical skills right out ofschool. The concept "Shopfloor being the arbiter" is a non starter inabsence of a system to train workers and skilled workforce.

文章中忽视了印度缺乏熟练劳动力这一现象,如果缺乏熟练劳动力,那么印度根本无法同德国竞争。德国拥有完善的职业培训系统,与教育系统紧密结合,学生从学校出来后就接受职业和技能培训。如果印度缺乏这种职业培训系统的话,那么“工人是关键所在”这一概念就是无效的。

Dinesh K Takyar (New Delhi)We can learn from China, Germany, UK, US,Holland but we need to find our own way based on our democratic system andsituation.

我们可以向中国、德国、英国、美国、荷兰学习,但是我们应该根据自己的民主制度和现状找到自己的发展道路。

J.K.AhujaAhuja (Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh)Germany is a highly developed country,andIndia at the present stage cannot adopt or follow its path to become amanufacturing hub. Germany has a big stock of highly skilled workers,whereasour country has only semi- skilled or unskilled workers in huge numbers. Authorafter author writes that India should follow on the path of Germany,US,Japanetc., which become developed countries some decades ago, therefore India shouldtake the example of Korea,Malaysia,Brazil,Taiwan, and last not least the hatedChina, which as per latest figures has a GDP of 5 times that of India.

德国是个高度发展的发达国家,所以目前的印度是无法追随德国成为制造业中心的。德国拥有大量的高技能工人,而印度目前拥有大量的半熟练或者没有技能的工人。大量作者说印度应该追随德国美国日本的模式,可是这些国家在几十年前就已经是发达国家了。因此印度应该学习韩国马来西亚巴西台湾以及尤其是被印度所仇视的中国,根据最新的数据来看,中国的GDP是印度的5倍了。

Aryabhata (Kusumapura)Germany is the real manufacturing superpower not China.

德国是真正的制造业强国,中国不是。