印度人评:中印战争中先宣战的是尼赫鲁

印度人评:中印战争中先宣战的是尼赫鲁

Two weeks ago, the Australian journalist Neville Maxwell finally made part of the Henderson Brooks report public, by putting it up on his blog. The report was an internal Indian Army enquiry into its rout in the 1962 war with China — Maxwell was the New Delhi correspondent for The Times, London, at the time — but in the 51 years since the report was written up by Lt Gen Henderson Brooks and Brig PS Bhagat, successive Indian governments have refused to make it public. Only two copies of the report were thought to be in existence, although there was never any doubt that Maxwell had had access to the report for his 1970 book India's China War quoted extensively from it. In his first interview to the Indian media since he made the report public, the now 88-year-old Maxwell tells Parakram Rautela that he had been trying to make the report public for years but that nobody would publish it. He adds that he was only able to get hold of Volume I of the report, minus 45 pages, and that he never laid eyes on Volume II. And of course he still blames Nehru for the war, not the Chinese. Excerpts:

两周前,澳大利亚记者内维尔•马克斯韦尔最终通过放到他的博客上,公开了亨德森布鲁克斯报告的部分内容。这份报告是关于印度军队在1962年与中国战争中溃败的调查。马克斯韦尔当时是英国《泰晤士报》驻德里的记者。自从亨德森布鲁克斯中将和Brig PS Bhagat撰写报告后的51年里,后续的印度政府都拒绝将其公开。该报告被认为只存在两份,从未有人怀疑马克斯韦尔查阅了该报告,因为他1970年出版的《印度对华战争》大量引用了该报告。在他把报告公开以来第一次接受印度媒体采访中,现年88岁的马克斯韦尔对Parakram Rautela透露,多年以来,他一直想方设法将报告公之于众,但无人愿意发表。当然,他仍然将战争归咎于尼赫鲁,而不是中国人。以下是采访节选:

Q: You suggest India's official account of the cause of the 1962 border war is false. What, in your view, is the truth?

NM: By September 1962 the Indian "forward policy" of trying to force the Chinese out of territory India claimed had built up great tension in the Western (Ladakh) sector of the border, with the Chinese army just blocking it. Then the Nehru government applied the forward policy to the McMahon Line eastern sector and when the Chinese blocked that too India in effect declared war with Nehru's announcement on October 11 that the Army had been ordered to "free our territory", which meant to attack the Chinese and drive them back. As General Niranjan Prasad, commander of 4 Division, wrote later: "We at the front knew that since Nehru had said he was going to attack, the Chinese were certainly not going to wait to be attacked" — and of course they didn't. That's how the war began. The Chinese attack was both reactive, in that General Kaul had begun the Indian assault on October 10, and pre-emptive because after that failure the Indian drive had been suspended to build up strength for a resumed attack.

问:你暗示印度关于1962年边界战争爆发原因的官方表述是错误的。在你看来,真相是什么?

内维尔•马克斯韦尔:到1962年9月,印度试图把所主张地区的中国人赶出去的“前进政策”,已经在西段(拉达克)逐渐建立紧张局势,中国军队当时只是加以阻止;后来尼赫鲁政府把前进政策应用到麦克马洪线的东段,中国军队也是加以阻止。随着尼赫鲁10月11日发表的公告,印度实际上已经宣战,该公告称军队已经被命令“解放我们的领土”,这意味着进攻并把中国人赶回去。正如第4师指挥官Niranjan Prasad将军后来写道:“我们在前线知道尼赫鲁说要发起进攻,中国人肯定不会坐以待毙。”——当然,他们的确未坐以待毙。战争就是这样开始的。中国人的进攻是被迫做出的反应,因为考尔将军已经于10月10日开始了攻击,而且是先发制人的。在遭受失败后,印度的进攻被暂停,以积蓄力量再次发起进攻。

Q: What in your opinion were the policies, on both sides, that brought about the basic quarrel over the border?

NM: As far as the McMahon Line was concerned India inherited the dispute with China, which the British had created in the mid-1930s by seizing the Tibetan territory they re-named NEFA. The PRC government was prepared to accept that border alignment but insisted that it be re-negotiated, that is put through the usual diplomatic process, to wipe out its imperialist origins. Nehru refused, using London's false claim that the Simla Conference had already legitimised the McMahon Line to back up that refusal — that was his Himalayan blunder. Then in 1954 he compounded that mistake by laying cartographic claim to a swathe of territory in the north-west, the Aksai Chin, a claim which was beyond anything the British had ever claimed and on an area which Chinese governments had treated as their own for at least a hundred years. To make matters worse, he ruled that there should be no negotiation over that claim either! So Indian policy had created a border dispute and also ruled out the only way it could peacefully be settled, through diplomatic negotiation.

问:在你看来,双方的哪些政策导致边界爆发争论?

内维尔•马克斯韦尔:就麦克马洪线而言,印度继承了(英国)与中国的纠纷,这一纠纷是英国在1930年代中期制造的,当时英国攻占了xz部分领土,并改名东北边境特区。中国政府准备接受这一边界划分,但是坚持通过外交进程展开重新谈判,消灭这一问题的帝国主义“血统”。但尼赫鲁拒绝了,同时用伦敦所称的西姆拉会议已经将麦克马洪线合法化的错误主张来支持这一拒绝——造成了他的喜马拉雅失策。后来在1954年,尼赫鲁加剧了这一错误,他对西北的部分领土即阿克塞钦声张主权,而那里是英国从未染指的地区,且中国政府已经将其视为己方领土至少有一百年了。让问题更糟糕的是,他坚持不对这一主张展开任何谈判!所以印度政府造成了边界纠纷,同时排除了通过外交谈判来和平解决纠纷的唯一途径。

Q: Whatever the truth about the origins of the war, it's the effect on India-China relations and the deadlock since then that is important now... And there was the worry that bringing up all the bitterness of that bloody conflict may only make matters worse?

NM: Certainly not, the opposite is true I think. If the Henderson Brooks Report is read closely in India (and it's not easy reading!) people will see that political favouritism put the Army under incompetent leadership which blindly followed the Nehru government's provocative policy. It shows that all the way, from formulation to implementation of the Forward Policy, that policy was resisted by the pucca soldiers because they saw it must end in a conflict India could only lose, but the orders came from the top and in the end had to be obeyed... the authors of the report ruefully quote the poem, "theirs not to reason why... but to do or die".

问:不管战争起源的真相如何,现在重要的是战争对印中关系的影响以及自那以后陷入的僵局...人们担心提出那场血腥冲突的痛楚也许只会让问题更糟?

内维尔•马克斯韦尔:当然不,我认为恰恰相反。如果亨德森布鲁克斯报告在印度得到仔细阅读,人们就会看清政治偏爱让军队置于无能领导层之下,后者盲目服从尼赫鲁政府的挑衅政策。自始至终,从形成到执行,前进政策一直遭到士兵的抵制,因为他们看到这一政策肯定会以印度必输的一场冲突收场。但命令被从上到下贯彻执行,士兵只好遵守...报告的作者悲伤地引用了一首诗,“他们不能去问为什么,只能选择去执行任务或战死”

以下是《印度时报》读者的评论:

译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/nehru-declared-1962-war.html [indent]

Yesu (Trichy)

Yeah, next he would say that australia was ruling england, or that england is where the australians had downloaded their criminals.

下次他会说澳大利亚曾经统治英国,后者是澳大利亚流放犯人之地。[/indent][indent]

Akshay ()

Nehru made big blunders and this is just one of them.....

尼赫鲁犯了重大错误,这是其中之一[/indent][indent]

Ramu (hyd)

Congress has been the bane of the nation for 66 years.

国大党已经祸害国家66载[/indent][indent]

Sameer Rai (India)

Interesting read and analysis..... God only knows how much is the truth.... but then if yes there is an iota of truth in what he is saying...... lot of reworking have to be done by the future governments....

有趣的分析。天晓得真相有几分。如果他说的有哪怕一点点是真的,那么未来的政府应该做出大量修订了。[/indent][indent]

anjan kumar paul (Kolkata)

We DEMAND the report (Indian Army inquiry on 1962 China War) be made Public after so many years of false history. We presume history books have to be rewritten.

Agree (1)Disagree (0)Recommend (0)

错误历史流传了几十年,我们要求公开印度军队有关1962年中印战争的报告。我们推测历史书得重写了。[/indent][indent]

Varun (Location)

Last chance for Indians to say NO to the dynasty that ruined the democratic vlaues

Agree (1)Disagree (0)Recommend (0)

印度人最后一次机会对毁掉皿煮价值的王朝说不[/indent][indent]

USA better than India (USA)

He was a damm fool

Agree (1)Disagree (0)Recommend (0)

他是一个大傻瓜。[/indent][indent]

ska (USA)

Bache ki Jaan loge kya...Galathiyan miscalculations no jaathi hai...and again it was no big war just skirmish at border check posts...Nehru could have easily used air attacks but due to some good reasons avoided that...

Agree (0)Disagree (2)Recommend (0)

一场边界冲突而已,又不是大战。尼赫鲁本可以利用空袭来解决,由于某些原因而最终放弃。[/indent][indent]

Vishwanath Holla (Bangalore, India)

The statement came at wrong time. Cannot verify the authenticity of event in the absence of classified war information not available with us. The way in which government is desperately trying not to make it public substantiate the fact of correctness of authors statement.

Agree (1)Disagree (2)Recommend (0)

这一声明来得不是时候。由于战争机密文件未公开,真实性无法考证。印度政府故意不公开的行为,加强了作者声明正确性的这一事实。[/indent][indent]

puneet vishnoi (moradabad)

this is wrong. When Nehru was saying to clear India's own territory then how did India declare war . India was only trying to send the infiltrators back and this is not atttack .Nehru was founder of panchsheel policy and considered china a great friend of India in the dame manner India was eying for peace and stopped manufacturing war items. this is another matter that china was not a true friend and deceived India

Agree (1)Disagree (1)Recommend (0)

这是错的。尼赫鲁当时是说清空印度自己的领土,怎么变成印度宣战了。印度只是设法把渗透者赶回去,不是发起进攻。

尼赫鲁是和平共处五项原则的创立者,把中国视为印度的伟大盟友,着眼于和平,停止生产战争物资。[/indent][indent]

SCL P (India)

Nehru made foolish bladders but he did not start the war. The war was definitely thrust on India by the Chinese who were any way nibbling into Indian territories anyway.

Agree (2)Disagree (1)Recommend (0)

尼赫鲁犯了愚蠢的错误,但不是他宣战的,而是中国人强加给印度的。中国人当时一点点蚕食印度领土。[/indent][indent]

Balraj Sagar (Unknown)

It is a hard fact that Nehru started or provoked war with China in 1962 in which India was badly mauled and lost a number of its braves. Going through the records as produced by various authors, one is prone to condemn Nehru as a man of no vision and the most incompetent administrator. He neither studied the terrain nor made any preparation to face the enemy but went in for war. He even did not care to study the forecast of Sardar Patel who had predicted the events to come immediately after China was entering Tibet. I wonder how such a person as Nehru is eulogized. All our ills are mostly due to this man and his wrong policies.

无可动摇的事实是,尼赫鲁1962年开启或挑起对华战争,结果印度遭受严重打击,失去了许多勇敢的士兵。

查阅不同作者撰写的记录,人们易于谴责尼赫鲁是一位缺乏远光和最无能的执政者。他既没有研究地形,也未做好面对敌人的准备,而是一味地邀战。

他甚至不愿意研究萨达特帕特尔的预测,后者预测中国进入xz后,麻烦事就会随之而来。不知道诸如尼赫鲁这样的人怎么会被颂扬。我们的弊端大多是尼赫鲁及其错误政策造成的。[/indent][indent]

kbrm66 (Location)

Nehru is also responsible for division of India.His greed for PM post created a permanent trouble and a burden on us for fighting wars and terror.History do not forgive him and his family.

Agree (3)Disagree (1)Recommend (0)

尼赫鲁也对印度分裂负有责任。他对总理职位的贪婪,给我们造成了一个永久的麻烦和负担。历史不会原谅他和他的家族。[/indent][indent]

kanwal_gill (s)

Nehru family leadership is big mouth leadership and created border problems and getting their soldiers killed. No member of Nehru family ever fought to defend the borders. In 1962 China war, Nehru relative Lt. Gen. Kaul was posted to defend eastern borders. But when the war started he was scared sick with loose motions and had to be replaced. This is the type of Nehru/Gandhi family that has been ruling the country for years and call themselves to be very Patriotic people.

Agree (3)Disagree (2)Recommend (0)

尼赫鲁家族靠大嘴领导国家,他们制造边界麻烦,让士兵白白送死。尼赫鲁家族无一人曾经保家卫国。1962年中印战争期间,尼赫鲁的亲戚考尔将军驻防东部边界。当战争爆发时,他吓出病来了,只好被替换。这是统治国家许多年的尼赫鲁甘地家族的典型表现,他们却自称是爱国者。[/indent][indent]

ash (Location)

as i have said many times before NEHRU was a power grabber and gandhiji saw through that and that is why he wanted congress desolved . mr patel should have been the first PM. this congi gov has ruined india .

Agree (2)Disagree (1)Recommend (0)

我说过许多次了,尼赫鲁是权力强取者,甘地看出了这一点,所以想解散国大党。

本该让帕特尔先生担任首任总理的,那届政府毁了印度。[/indent][indent]

LD Bhatia (Unknown)

The writer may have written what he has but the fact cannot be denied that Chinese too had occupied parts of Indian territory during those days. Their occupation of Tibet was directed mainly at consolidating their position on the Sino-Indian bordets. The main thing is the army command was not in competent hands those days. Competent commanders of the army would have made the government aware of the logistic problems they faced at the border the biggest of which was lack of mountain division during those days. Army needed time to over its shortcomings but did not get it. But nobody can denay that the book published by he writer says some untruths also.

Agree (1)Disagree (0)Recommend (0)

作者写归写,但无法否认中国人当时也占领了印度部分领土的这一事实。他们对xz的占领主要是为了巩固其在中印边界的位置。

印度的主要问题是军队指挥官不是能者,否则他们会让政府意识到军队面临的后勤问题,最重要的是印军当时缺乏山地师。军队需要时间来克服缺点,但没有时间去适应。

无人可以否认作者公布的这本书也存在一些谎言。[/indent][indent]

Dee Vee Pariyarath (mumbai)

Who lost the war is more important than who declared it.On both the counts we were on the receiving end.

Agree (0)Disagree (1)Recommend (0)

重要的是我们输掉了战争,而不是谁宣战的。不管属于哪一种情况,我们都是受气包。[/indent][indent]

Anil G Sanji (Bangalore)

Nehru family has been curse on India since independence, they have been in power for so long still 1/3 rd of India ( more than population of europe ) live below poverty line! No doubt china had occupied our land and even now but we could have avoided war which killed many indian soldiers and civilians. Of course we should not forget British who created all problems and believed in Divide and Rule Policy. We should had Subhas chandra bose as our first PM as he is most deserving.

Agree (3)Disagree (2)Recommend (0)

自从印度独立以来,尼赫鲁家族就一直被诅咒,他们掌权太久了,印度仍然有三分之一的人(比欧洲人口更多)生活在贫困线下!

毫无疑问,中国至今仍然占领着我们的领土,我们本该避免导致大量印度士兵和平民死亡的战争。

当然,我们不应该忘记制造各种问题且主张分而治之政策的英国。

苏巴斯·钱德拉·鲍斯更有资格当总理,本该让他担任首任总理的。[/indent][indent]

KD A (Aus)

Everyone knows that Nehru ruined the nation !

尼赫鲁毁掉国家是人人皆知的事情![/indent][indent]

knight (Location)

this chap Neville is a proven pro China correspondent and had a strong anti India bias...but his theory holds some water Nehru did step on the dragons tail by his forward policy.

麦克斯韦尔被证明是亲华记者,持强烈的反印偏见。不过他的理论有一定的道理,尼赫鲁的前进政策确实踩到了中国龙的尾巴。[/indent][indent]

BHARAT BHARTIA (india)

These revelations by foreign writers suggest that congress has kept nation in dark about 1962 war !

外国记者的披露暗示,就1962年中印战争,国大党一直把国人蒙在鼓里。[/indent][indent]

Ashish (Mumbai)

its true we lost war because of nehru but nehru started war its new .....

我们的确因为尼赫鲁输掉了战争,但要说尼赫鲁发动了战争,倒是新鲜说法[/indent][indent]

Rahul Bansal (Unknown)

Congress criticized for being taking action on border issue which led to war(1962) and not taking any action (present issues)

1962年,国大党在边界采取行动,导致战争爆发,结果受到批评;

如今,国大党拒绝在边界采取任何行动,结果还是受到批评。[/indent][indent]

Jasmine Florist (India)

Some fellow are always there to create sensation . can he prove his words .

有些家伙总是喜欢制造轰动,他能证明他的话是真的吗?[/indent][indent]

Talha Seedat (New Delhi, India)

whatever the reasons, the sad truth is we lost the war with China.

无论是什么原因,可悲之处在于我们输掉了与中国的战争。[/indent][indent]

goureesh.belavatagi ()

Will Congress big Guns Buy this new ?

国大党的大人物会买账吗?[/indent][indent]

pdasnrb (India)

The guy must have been drunk & lost his sense to declare war against China!

这个家伙肯定喝醉了,失去了知觉,迷糊之中宣布对华开战![/indent][indent]

SADU AVR (Chennai)

This family has the habit of hiding truth from the people of the nation from the start....

从一开始,这个家族就喜欢在国人面前隐瞒真相。[/indent]

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