日本专家眼里:钓鱼岛的真正历史(龙腾)

日本专家眼里:钓鱼岛的真正历史(龙腾)

East Asia this year has been marked by rising tensions over the Senkaku Islands (known in China as the Diaoyu Islands). As has been widely reported, China has dispatched government patrol and surveillance ships to intrude into Japan’s territorial waters off the islands, which lie in the East China Sea. Meanwhile, Beijing’s rhetoric has been more heated. In April, a Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson appeared to indicate that the Chinese government regarded the Senkaku Island issue as a core interest for China. This was the first government use of a term normally reserved for highly sensitive Chinese political concerns such as Taiwan, Tibet and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. And in recent days, China has made the very provocative decision to establish an air defense zone that encompasses the Senkaku skies.

今年东亚因钓鱼/尖阁岛(中国称为钓鱼岛)日益紧张的局势而成为焦点。正如广泛报道那样,中国政府已经派遣海监船只入侵位于东中国海的日本岛屿领海。同时,北京的言论更加慷慨激昂。四月份,一名中国外交部发言人表示中国政府将会把钓鱼岛作为中国的核心利益。这是中国政府第一次针对钓鱼岛使用通常只对台湾、XZ、新疆维吾尔自治区的高度敏感的中国政治术语。近些日子,为建立包含钓鱼岛上空的空中防卫区域中国已经制订了颇具挑衅的决定。

With concerns rising that the situation could spiral out of control, it seems worth reviewing the facts regarding the sovereignty of the Senkaku and the options available for a sensible resolution to the issue.

随着局势逐渐升级乃至失控,有必要重识钓鱼岛主权的现状以及寻求合理解决这一问题可行的办法。

Ever since it incorporated the Senkaku Islands into Japanese territory through a Cabinet decision in 1895, the Japanese government has consistently taken the position that the islands are an integral part of the territory of Japan. This stance accords with both international law and the historical facts. The Senkaku have consistently been under Japan’s effective control, except for a period (from 1945 to 1972) when the islands were placed under the administration of the United States as part of Okinawa prefecture.

自从它在1895年被日本内阁通过将尖阁诸岛注册成为日本领土,日本政府坚称这些岛屿是日本领土不可分割的一部分。这一立场符合国际法和史实。尖阁诸岛一直在日本实际的控制下,除了一个时期(1945年至1972年),这些岛屿被作为冲绳县的一部分置于美国的管控下。

Before 1971, neither China nor Taiwan made any claims to “territorial sovereignty” over the Senkaku Islands. For 76 years, neither government expressed any objection to Japanese sovereignty over the islands.

1971年以前,无论是中国还是台湾都没有对尖阁诸岛进行任何“领土主权”的声明。七十六年来,没有政府对日本对这些岛屿的主权表示任何异议。

Why the change in position? In the late 1960s, a UN agency, the Bangkok-based Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE), surveyed the waters around the Senkaku. The survey suggested potentially rich deposits of oil beneath the seabed. After the ECAFE released its findings, in 1971, the Republic of China (Taiwan) made its first territorial claim to the islands. Several months later the People’s Republic of China followed suit.

为什么立场发生变化了呢?在60年代末期,联合国亚远经委会对尖阁列岛海域进行调查,该调查结果显示该海域可能蕴藏着丰富的石油资源。在亚远经委会公布其调查结果后,1971年,中华民国(台湾)首次对钓鱼岛宣布了主权。几个月之后,中华人民共和国也开始效仿。

So, let’s review the history of the issue more carefully. For ten years starting 1885, Japan conducted field surveys on the Senkaku Islands, scrupulously confirming that the islands had never been inhabited and showed no traces of having been under the control of China’s Qing Dynasty.

所以,让我们更仔细地审视这一历史问题。从1885年开始的十年里,日本对尖阁诸岛实行了实地考察,严格确认该岛屿从未有人居住,并没有任何迹象表示(钓鱼岛)已在中国的清王朝的控制之下。

Based on this research, the Japanese government decided in January 1895 to erect national territorial markers on the islands, officially incorporating the Senkaku Islands into the territory of Japan. This administrative action was consistent with international law, namely the internationally accepted legal theory of terra nullius (land belonging to no one) concerning the rights of acquisition through occupation.

基于以上研究,日本政府决定在1895年1月在这些岛屿竖立起国家领土标记,将尖阁诸岛正式纳入日本领土。这些行政行为是符合国际法的,也就是国际公认的有关无主地的法律理论:通过占领就可拥有无主岛的所有权。

The Historical Record

历史记录

As the record shows, Japanese inhabited the Senkaku from 1895 until immediately before the start of World War II. Japanese people sometimes lived on the islands to harvest albatross feathers. During another period, a factory was built to process dried bonito. The population of one of the islands, Uotsuri, topped 200 at one point. In 1920, residents of Ishigaki Island, which was under the jurisdiction of Okinawa prefecture, rescued Chinese fishermen caught in a storm in waters near the Senkaku. The Consul of the Republic of China in Nagasaki sent a signed and sealed letter of appreciation for the rescue in the area of “the Senkaku Islands in the Yaeyama District of the Japanese Empire’s Okinawa Prefecture.” The letter cited the names of the residents of Ishigaki Island, whom the consul noted “were willing and generous in the rescue operation.”

据档案显示,日本人于1895年直至二战前夕在尖阁诸岛筑巢。日本人有时住在岛上接收信天翁羽毛。在另一个时期,建立了处理鲣鱼干的工厂。在其中一个岛(钓鱼岛)上的人口最高到达200人。1920年,在冲绳县管辖的石垣岛上的居民解救了尖阁附近海域遇到暴风雨的中国渔民。中国驻长崎大使馆领事发来一封签名并盖章的信函高度赞扬了在“日本帝国冲绳县的尖阁列岛的八重山”地区的救援行动。该信列举了石垣岛的居民的姓名,该领事称其“在此次救援行动中是大方且慷慨的。”

Just over three years after the People’s Republic of China’s birth, a January 8, 1953 article in the People’s Daily,an organ of the Communist Party of China had the Senkaku as Japanese territory. A World Atlas published in China in 1960 showed the islands as part of Japan. According to notes taken at meetings of the Chinese government around 1950, copies of which were recently obtained exclusively by the Jiji Press news agency, Chinese government officials were using the Japanese name “Senkaku Islands,” indicating that they considered the Senkaku part of Okinawa prefecture.

在中华人民共和国仅仅成立三年后,人民日报1953年1月8日的文章中,人民日报将尖阁列岛称为日本的领土。于1960年在中国出版的世界地图集显示,这些岛屿是日本的一部分。在时事通讯社最近独家获得的中国政府50年代的会议记录副本上,中国政府官员使用了日本名字“尖阁列岛”,表明他们认为冲绳县的尖阁一部分。

When Okinawa prefecture was provisionally placed under U.S. administration in 1945, the U.S. military used some of the Senkaku Islands as firing and bombing ranges. With the reversion of Okinawa to Japanese rule in 1972, the Senkaku returned to Japan, as part of the prefecture. The U.S. has clearly and repeatedly stated the Senkaku are “within the range of application” of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty.

当冲绳县在1945年被临时安置在美国政府之下,美军将部分尖阁诸岛作为射击和轰炸范围。随着冲绳那霸在1972年回归日本统治,尖阁也作为县内一部分回到日本。美军已经明确并一再重申,尖阁诸岛适用于美日安保条约范围。

China argues that Japan stole the Senkaku Islands during the Sino-Japanese war, from August 1894 to April 1895. The claim suggests Japan “usurped” the islands using the turmoil of war as an excuse. But in making that assertion, China deliberately ignores two key facts: (1) Over a period of at least 10 years before the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War, the evidence showed that the Senkaku were terra nullius, and not under the control of China’s Qing Dynasty; and (2) Japan incorporated the islands into its sovereign territory using procedures in accordance with international law, prior to the conclusion of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which ended the Sino-Japanese War.

中国认为日本在1894年8月至1895年的中日甲午战争中窃取了钓鱼岛。这一说法表明日本以战争动荡为借口夺取了这些岛屿。但在做出断言时,中国却故意忽略了两个重要事实:(1)在中日甲午战争爆发至少10年以前,尖阁诸岛是无主之地,并不在中国清政府的统治下;(2)在甲午战争结束,签署《马关条约》之前,日本早已依照国际法将尖阁诸岛纳入其主权领土。

Under the Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed in April 1895, the Qing Dynasty ceded Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands to Japan. No mention was made of the Senkaku Islands. There is no record of any discussions taking place on the Senkaku in the bilateral negotiations on the treaty. The incorporation of the Senkaku into Japan’s territory by exercising its rights of “acquisition through occupation” based on the legal principle of terra nulliuswas carried out three months before the Treaty of Shimonoseki was concluded.

根据1895年4月签署的马关条约,清政府割让台湾和澎湖列岛给日本。其中并未提及尖阁诸岛,在双边谈判条约内没有任何关于尖阁诸岛的讨论记录。在马关条约签署三个月前,日本已通过无主之地占领即拥有的法理将尖阁诸岛纳为其主权领土。

During the 50-year period from 1895 to 1945, when Japan ruled both Taiwan and the Pescadores under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General of Taiwan (Formosa), the Senkaku Islands were under the jurisdiction of the Okinawa prefectural government as part of the prefecture’s Nansei Islands, a chain of islands extending from southwestern Kyushu to waters north of Taiwan. Administrative jurisdiction over the Senkaku was entirely separate from the administration of Taiwan and the Pescadores.

在1895年到1945年的50年间,日本驻台湾总督总辖台湾和澎湖列岛。尖阁诸岛作为冲绳县西南诸岛群岛(从九州西南部延伸至台湾北部的岛链)的一部份,隶属于冲绳县政府管辖。尖阁诸岛的行政管辖权是完全独立于台湾和澎湖列岛的。

Searching for options, the Chinese government has recently begun quoting the 1943 Cairo Declaration and the 1945 Potsdam Declaration as evidence of its claims. Beijing argues that Japan’s acceptance of these declarations means that it agreed to return the Senkaku to China (the Republic of China) along with Taiwan and the Pescadores as “islands appertaining to Taiwan.”

通过旁征博引,中国政府最近已开始引用了1943年开罗宣言和1945年波茨坦宣言,作为其主权要求的依据。北京方面认为,日本接受这些声明意味着,它同意将属于台湾和澎湖列岛的尖阁诸岛作为“台湾的附属岛屿”归还给中国。

To be sure, the Cairo Declaration obliged Japan “to restore to the Republic of China all the territories Japan has stolen from the Qing Dynasty of China such as Manchuria, Formosa and the Pescadores.” Article 8 of the Potsdam Declaration stipulated, “The Cairo Declaration shall be implemented.” However, there is no evidence that shows that the Allied powers, including the Republic of China, recognized the Senkaku Islands as among “the islands appertaining to Formosa.”

可以肯定的是,开罗宣言要求日本“归还中华人民共和国在清朝时期被日本掠夺诸如伪满洲、台湾及澎湖列岛等的所有土地。”波茨坦公告第八条规定,“开罗宣言应被执行。“不过包括中华人民共和国在内的同盟国,都没有证据表明尖阁列岛“附属于台湾岛”。

The San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed in September 1951, defined the territory of Japan after the war: Article 2 (b) of the treaty stipulated that Japan renounced territorial sovereignty over Formosa and the Pescadores, which the treaty said had been ceded by China to Japan after the Sino-Japanese War. However, the Senkaku Islands were not included “in the islands appertaining to Formosa” in the treaty. Had the Senkaku, at that time, been recognized as “islands appertaining to Taiwan,” the U.S. would not have placed the Senkaku under its administration as part of Okinawa prefecture. In this respect, China’s claims are without legal foundation.

1951年9月签署的旧金山和平条约,规定日本领土战争结束后:第2条(b)本条约规定,日本放弃台湾及澎湖列岛的领土主权,该条约说明是在甲午战争后中国割让给日本的领土。但是,尖阁列岛并没有被包括“在附属于台湾岛”中的条约。而尖阁诸岛如果在那个时期被认为是台湾的附属岛屿,美军就不会将尖阁诸岛作为冲绳县的一部分纳入自己的管理之下。从这个方面来说,中国的说法是没有法律依据的。

No Agreement on “Shelving”

“搁置争议”无法达成共识

The term of “shelving” an issue refers to the acknowledgement by two parties that an issue exists, and the agreement to postpone resolution to a future date. Japan and China never agreed to “shelve” any issue related to the territorial sovereignty over the Senkaku Islands. Documents recently released by Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs make this clear.

“搁置”这个术语指的是双方确认问题存在,并同意将解决方案推迟至未来某个日期。中日均不同意“搁置”任何有关尖阁诸岛领土主权的问题。日本外交部最近发布的文件清楚地说明了这一点。

At the time of negotiations between Japan and China in 1972 to normalize diplomatic relations, Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai briefly exchanged words on the Senkaku Islands. One document quotes Tanaka as asking Zhou: “What is your view on the Senkaku Islands? Some people say things about them to me.” The exchange ended abruptly with Zhou’s response: “I do not want to talk about it this time. If there wasn’t oil, neither Taiwan nor the United States would make this an issue.” That is the entire exchange, and it simply cannot be equated with an argument in favor of shelving the issue.

1972年中日邦交正常化之际,日本首相田中角荣和中国总理周恩来曾经短暂的交流过关于尖阁诸岛的意见。一份文档中记载田中问周恩来:“你对尖阁诸岛有什么看法?有人曾对我说过那些东西”。周的回应结束了此次交流:“我不想谈论它。如果没有石油,台湾和美国都不会制造这个事端”。这就是整个交流过程,它并不能等同于搁置争议的依据。

The record also reveals what Chinese Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping said about the Senkaku Islands in 1978 to then Japanese Prime Minister Takeo Fukuda. Deng was visiting Japan for an exchange of instruments ratifying the Japan-China Treaty of Peace and Friendship. During his meeting with Fukuda, Deng said, “There’s no need to raise subjects like this [the issue of what is called the Diaoyu in China and the Senkaku Islands in Japan] at a meeting like this.” Deng also said: “There’s probably insufficient wisdom to resolve this issue in our generation, but with the next generation likely to be wiser than us, they will probably be able to find some resolution to the issue.” Fukuda made no response.

该文件还揭露了中国国务院副总理邓小平在1978年与日本首相福田赳夫谈话的内容。邓访日是为了参加《中日和平友好条约》缔约换文仪式。在他会见福田赳夫时说道,“这个问题可以把它放一下,也许下一代比我们更聪明些,会找到实际解决的方法。”福田没有做出回应。

At a press conference on the day he met with Fukuda, Deng reiterated his desire to leave a solution to the Senkaku problem to the next generation, as “people of our generation don’t have sufficient wisdom to settle this problem…Even if this means the issue is temporarily shelved, I don’t think I mind. I don’t mind if it’s shelved for 10 years,” Deng added.

在他会见福田当天的记者招待会上,邓小平重申了他希望将解决尖阁的这个问题留给下一代,是“我们这一代人没有足够的智慧来解决这个问题...即使这意味着该问题被暂时搁置,我并不认为我介意。我不介意将它搁置10年,”邓补充道。

As these records show, there was never any recognition that a territorial or sovereignty problem existed between Japan and China or that an accord or agreement to shelve the matter existed. Although Deng’s remarks were carefully and skillfully phrased at the press conference, he was merely offering his own opinion.

根据这些记录显示,没有人承认中日之间存在领土或主权争端,也没有人承认存在任何搁置争议的协议。邓的发言或许在发布会上非常谨慎精确,但他也只是表达了他个人的意见。

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楼主不知道是否清楚,日本不仅拥有钓鱼岛,还拥有满洲国!这都是有条约的!而且是盖了中国的皇帝的国玺的。

日本还曾经拥有过南京!

但是,或许,你可以找到唐代日本向中国称臣的文件。日本是不是要执行条约或者文件到他成人的那一天?


据日本第一个上了钓鱼岛的说,他首次上岛,岛上有两具不知死了多久的中国人男尸(中国服装?)这第一个上岛人在死前给子孙当面留下遗书,称这岛是中国人的,当时日本政府也知道其事,其后人也公开了这件事,日本政府却伪造历史,把发现该岛的人物和时间都篡改了,就是想占中国人的岛而已。

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