美国CNN:为什么中国的亚丁湾反海盗行动意义重大


美国CNN:为什么中国的亚丁湾反海盗行动意义重大

Why China’s Gulf piracy fight matters

12月26日,毛主席的诞辰,一直是中国一个重大的日子。上个月正值毛泽东诞辰120周年纪念,围绕着他的遗产越来越多的话题,引起了中国公众,媒体,学界甚至是官方的激烈辩论。同样在中国现代历史上具有史无前例的里程碑意义,并且毛泽东肯定会自豪的是:中国海军在亚丁湾打击海盗行动五周年纪念。(译文简介)

Why China’s Gulf piracy fight matters

为什么中国的亚丁湾反海盗行动意义重大

[日期]2014年1月7号

By Andrew S. Erickson and Austin M. Strange,Special to CNN

来自Andrew S. Erickson 和Austin M. Strange,CNN特刊

美国CNN:为什么中国的亚丁湾反海盗行动意义重大


Editor’s note: Andrew S. Ericksonis an associate professor inthe Strategic Research Department at the U.S. Naval War College.AustinM. Strange is a research associate at the China Maritime StudiesInstitute. The views expressedare the authors’ alone.

编者按:Andrew S. Erickson是美国海军战争学院战略研究部的副教授。Austin M. Strange是中国海事研究所助理研究员。本文谨代表作者个人看法。

December 26, Chairman Mao’s birthday, is always a significant datefor China. But last month’s 120th anniversarycame at a time when his legacy is increasingly subject to vigorous debate amongthe Chinese public, media, academia and even officialdom. And it alsoestablished a new landmark in contemporary Chinese history, an unprecedentedmilestone in Chinese foreign policy that Mao would surely be proud of: the 5th year anniversary of China’s navalanti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden.

12月26日,毛主席的诞辰,一直是中国一个重大的日子。上个月正值毛泽东诞辰120周年纪念,围绕着他的遗产越来越多的话题,引起了中国公众,媒体,学界甚至是官方的激烈辩论。同样在中国现代历史上具有史无前例的里程碑意义,并且毛泽东肯定会自豪的是:中国海军在亚丁湾打击海盗行动五周年纪念。

To honor the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN)’s contributionsto maritime security off Somalia, the China Maritime Museum, located inShanghai, opened a special exhibit that runs into March, and which featuresphotos and actual mission mementos. Chinese media outlets continue to roll outa flurry of articles commemorating the occasion. But what is the actualsignificance of Chinese anti-piracy activities? And what has China accomplishedthere over the past five years?

为了纪念中国人民解放军海军为索马里海域海上安全作出的贡献,上海中国海事博物馆将在三月开放一个特殊的展览,展出一些特色照片和实际任务纪念品。中国媒体还会继续推出一系列纪念文章。但中国打击海盗活动的真实意义是什么呢?过去五年里中国在该地区完成了什么呢?

First and foremost, China’s naval foray into the Gulf of Aden,beginning in 2008, is a resounding response from Beijing to threats against itsoverseas interests. Chinese people and economic assets continue to dispersethroughout the world at record pace nearly four decades after Deng Xiaoping’s openingup reforms. As a result, nontraditional security breaches outside of China,such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks (and, in this case, maritimepiracy) pose growing threats to Chinese national interests.

首先,自2008年开始,中国海军进入亚丁湾,是北京对其海外利益受到威胁的一个响亮的回应。邓小平提出改革开放后的近四十年来,中国人民和经济资产以创纪录的速度向全世界持续扩散。因此,中国外部非传统安全问题,比如自然灾害,恐怖袭击(这种情况下的海盗)对中国的国家利益构成了日益增长的威胁。

The ocean is at the center of China’s “Going out” policy: Chinarelies on seaborne shipping for the vast majority of its trade, and PLAN isemerging as China’s most prominent service. Both Beijing’s calculated, resoluteresponse to Somali pirate attacks on Chinese citizens, as well as its steadfastcommitment to protecting Chinese and foreign ships over the last five years,signal China’s staunch commitment to ensuring safe conditions for Chineseoverseas.

海洋是中国“走出去”政策的核心:中国绝大多数贸易依赖海上运输,并且中国人民解放军海军脱颖而出成为中国最突出的保护力量。北京对索马里海盗袭击中国公民的坚定回应,以及过去五年来坚决致力于保护中国及外国船只,都凸显出中国确保中国人在海外安全的坚定承诺。

Statistics accumulated over the past five years make clearBeijing’s commitment to security sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Accordingto state media, the PLAN has dispatched 15,000 personnel over 16 escorttaskforce flotillas since 2008, averaging three per year. Taskforces, whichusually consist of China’s most advanced frigates, destroyers and amphibiousships, have escorted 5,463 Chinese and foreign commercial ships – over1,000 ships per year. PLAN forces have alsothwarted more than 30 potential pirate attacks, rescued over 40 commercialships, and escorted 11 vessels previously taken by pirates. Moreover, the factthat such information is actively recorded and publicized demonstrates thestate’s desire to derive maximum domestic and international publicity benefitsfrom the missions.

过去5年的统计数据清楚显示了北京确保海上交通线安全的承诺。根据官方媒体报道,2008年以来,中国人民解放军海军已经派遣1.5万人次,超过16批护航编队,平均每年三次。护航编队,通常由中国最先进的护卫舰,驱逐舰和两栖舰组成,已经护送5,463次中外商船----每年超过1,000艘。中国人民解放军海军已经挫败了30多次潜在的海盗袭击,救出超过40艘商船,并且护送11艘曾被海盗袭击的船只。此外,这些信息被积极记录并公开发布的事实,说明中国渴望从这些任务中获得最大程度的国内国际宣传效应。

Besides safeguarding national interests, China’s investment inGulf of Aden security continues tosharpen the abilities of PLAN personnel, platforms, and institutions.Operational achievements such as improved logistical supply chains, intra-navycoordination breakthroughs and greater focus on sailors’ morale are a fewhighlights of the mission that have real consequences for broader Chinesemilitary development. Chinese sailors have, to put it bluntly, used Gulf ofAden operations to grow from “maritimerookies” to “confident seadogs.”

除了维护国家利益,中国在亚丁湾安全上的投入还提升了中国人民解放军个人、装备以及制度体系的能力。任务中体现出来的亮点,比如改进后勤供应链,海军内部协调突破,提高海军战士士气,也将对中国更广泛的军事发展有着实际的影响。说白了,中国海军就是利用亚丁湾行动来锤炼自己,完成从“海上菜鸟”到“自信老手”的蜕变。

These lessons are readily apparent to China’s navy and the rest ofthe world. Yet the PLAN’s Gulf of Aden five-year anniversary is a milestone forreasons beyond the military domain. For those interested in China’s role in 21st century international society, fiveyears off the coast of Somalia have allowed the opportunity to observe China inits first protracted, direct operational role within the context ofinternational security outside of East Asia. The PLAN has embodied the spiritof “creative involvement” off Somalia, operating independent of but in parallelwith Western and other naval forces.

对中国海军和世界其它国家而言效果是显而易见的。中国海军在波斯湾护航五周年纪念是超越军事范畴的里程碑。对那些关注中国在21世纪国际社会中所扮演的角色的人来说,五年索马里护航给了他们一个长期而直接地观察在东亚以外的国际安全环境下的中国的机会。中国海军秉承“创造性介入”索马里的精神,其行动对西方和其他国家的海军而言,既独立又有联系。

More broadly, the missions signal that Beijing appears willing tocooperate with the United States and other naval powers to tackle nontraditionalsecurity challenges placing all sides “in the same boat.” Those calling on theMiddle Kingdom to grow into a responsible stakeholder following persistenteconomic development and ascendancy in status can therefore cite Gulf of Adenanti-piracy as a modest but welcome example. 更广泛地讲,索马里护航彰显出这样一个信号,北京愿意与美国以及其他国家海军合作,共同应对非传统性安全挑战,让所有人坐上“同一艘船”。那些呼吁“中央王国”成长为一个负责任的利益攸关方,并维持经济发展和优势地位的人,将亚丁湾反海盗行动看作一个谦逊但又可喜的例子。

It may not be surprising to see states joining forces againstnontraditional threats like piracy since there are clear economic and politicalincentives for cooperating rather than competing. But the fact that China continuesto work actively with U.S., Japan and European navies off Somalia isunprecedented given choppy maritime relations between these states in theAsia-Pacific. The Gulf of Aden has played the foil to China’s assertivereputation in the contentious East and South China Seas, where Beijing’sbehavior is increasingly perceived as counterproductive and downrightdangerous.

看到各国联合对抗非传统威胁,比如海盗,一点都不令人惊讶,因为有着很明确的经济和政治上的动机。但是中国在索马里海域之外也积极同美国,日本,欧盟海军合作,这是史无前例的,因为在亚太地区这些国家之间的关系波涛汹涌。亚丁湾衬托出中国在东海及中国南海的自信,而在这里北京的行为越来越被认为是适得其反,彻头彻尾的危险。

True, while five years is a significant commitment, it would beunrealistic to suggest that the Gulf of Aden experience might directly impactmaritime relations in other regions, such as the Yellow, East, and South ChinaSeas – rife with tensions over core interests between Beijing and itsneighbors. Yet China’s global maritime engagement stretches far beyond thewaters of East Asia, and the world will expect more genuine contributions fromBeijing as its stake in international security grows regardless of the state ofaffairs in China’s immediate neighborhood. Indeed, in the 21st century China’s foreign policy isbeing pulled in different directions as Beijing strives to balance traditionalprinciples with pragmatic needs.

确实,五年是一个很重大的保证,但是如果说亚丁湾的经验可以直接影响中国海军在其他地区的海上关系,比如说黄海,东海,南海,这是不切实际的-----这里充斥着中国同其邻国间关于核心利益的紧张局势。但是,中国全球海洋扩张远超东亚海域,全世界都期待着得到北京更多的真正的贡献,因为这围绕着国际安全而与中国周边的局势无关。实际上,进入21世纪以来,中国的外交政策呈现多边化,一直在传统原则与务实需求间寻求平衡。

Ultimately, while tensions remain close to home, five years ofuninterrupted anti-piracy deployments in distant seas reflects a qualitativeimprovement in Chinese global security engagement, a development that should bewelcomed by the international community. If China and other states can look tothe Gulf of Aden as a model for pragmatic cooperation, it might encourage amore active yet more transparent Chinese presence in other areas ofinternational security.

最后,尽管周边局势紧张,但是五年的索马里反海盗行动反映了中国全球安全的改善,并朝着国际社会欢迎的方向发展。如果中国及其他国家能够将索马里看作务实合作的典范,这或许将鼓励中国以更积极更透明的方式参与国际安全的其他领域。

评论:

henry winn

Like everythingelse, when China committed to piracy fight in the Gulf it already had its eyesset on using that well publicized training opportunity to cover up much darkerexecution of South China Sea expansionist policy. As always, don't expect Chinato ever provide free service.

像任何其他事物一样,当参与亚丁湾地区反海盗行动,中国就已经决定利用这样的宣传训练机会来掩盖其在中国南海更黑暗的领土扩张主义政策。如同以往,不要指望中国提供免费的午餐

本文系转载龙腾,作者清流亹亹


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