美联储发声明:从1月份起每月缩减100亿美元QE

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导读:文章来源: 凤凰网 [face=黑体][color=#b28c8c] [face=黑体][color=#b28c8c]

文章来源: 凤凰网

在结束了为期两天的货币政策会议后,美联储于北京时间周四(12月19日)宣布,维持联邦基金利率区间在0.0%-0.25%不变,每月削减100亿美元QE。美联储将在明年1月开始缩减购债,每月将购买400亿美元美国国债,每月将购买350亿美元抵押贷款支持证券。美联储公开市场委员会(FOMC)在会后发布的正式声明中称,如果经济保持既定方向,则将在未来政策会议上继续谨慎缩减购债。这表明美联储在退出经济刺激计划的道路上迈出了第一步.美联储重申会维持接近零的低利率政策,只要失业率高于6.5%且通胀率低于2.5%.美联储在正式政策声明中表示,鉴于劳动力市场朝著就业最大化目标不断靠近,且就业前景出现改善,美联储政策委员会决定适度降低其资产购买计划的规模。美联储还试图强调其在购债结束后将短期利率长期维持在低位的承诺。美联储官员在政策声明加入了新的说法,称只要通胀水平不是过高,那么就算失业率降至6.5%的门槛该行也不会急于加息。美联储此前曾将6.5%的失业率设定为开始考虑加息的政策门槛。

市场影响

在美联储缩减QE规模之后,美元指数一度快速跳涨至80.30上方,但此后,在美联储对经济前景的预估仍然不尽如人意的背景下,美元指数又一度下行至79.89的低位。市场的震荡行情显示投资者对前景仍然感到迷茫,因而此后,美联储主席伯南克(Ben S. Bernanke)所做的新闻发布会讲话将成为左右汇市进一步走势的又一焦点事件。

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近期美国发布了强于预期的经济数据。少数经济学家认为此次会议就将有所动作,但更多人预计缩减将在2014年的头几个月发生。

自2008年11月以来,美联储已经宣布了6个版本的购债计划。对于维持超低利率的措辞也变了6个版本。过去四年里,美联储两度结束QE,希望经济可以企稳,但最终只能再度启动新一轮购债。

美联储目前每月购买850亿美元债券,以此向美国经济注入流动性。

新闻稿(原版)

Release Date: December 18, 2013

For immediate release

Information received since the Federal Open Market Committee met in October indicates that economic activity is expanding at a moderate pace. Labor market conditions have shown further improvement; the unemployment rate has declined but remains elevated. Household spending and business fixed investment advanced, while the recovery in the housing sector slowed somewhat in recent months. Fiscal policy is restraining economic growth, although the extent of restraint may be diminishing. Inflation has been running below the Committee's longer-run objective, but longer-term inflation expectations have remained stable.

Consistent with its statutory mandate, the Committee seeks to foster maximum employment and price stability. The Committee expects that, with appropriate policy accommodation, economic growth will pick up from its recent pace and the unemployment rate will gradually decline toward levels the Committee judges consistent with its dual mandate. The Committee sees the risks to the outlook for the economy and the labor market as having become more nearly balanced. The Committee recognizes that inflation persistently below its 2 percent objective could pose risks to economic performance, and it is monitoring inflation developments carefully for evidence that inflation will move back toward its objective over the medium term.

Taking into account the extent of federal fiscal retrenchment since the inception of its current asset purchase program, the Committee sees the improvement in economic activity and labor market conditions over that period as consistent with growing underlying strength in the broader economy. In light of the cumulative progress toward maximum employment and the improvement in the outlook for labor market conditions, the Committee decided to modestly reduce the pace of its asset purchases. Beginning in January, the Committee will add to its holdings of agency mortgage-backed securities at a pace of $35 billion per month rather than $40 billion per month, and will add to its holdings of longer-term Treasury securities at a pace of $40 billion per month rather than $45 billion per month. The Committee is maintaining its existing policy of reinvesting principal payments from its holdings of agency debt and agency mortgage-backed securities in agency mortgage-backed securities and of rolling over maturing Treasury securities at auction. The Committee's sizable and still-increasing holdings of longer-term securities should maintain downward pressure on longer-term interest rates, support mortgage markets, and help to make broader financial conditions more accommodative, which in turn should promote a stronger economic recovery and help to ensure that inflation, over time, is at the rate most consistent with the Committee's dual mandate.

The Committee will closely monitor incoming information on economic and financial developments in coming months and will continue its purchases of Treasury and agency mortgage-backed securities, and employ its other policy tools as appropriate, until the outlook for the labor market has improved substantially in a context of price stability. If incoming information broadly supports the Committee's expectation of ongoing improvement in labor market conditions and inflation moving back toward its longer-run objective, the Committee will likely reduce the pace of asset purchases in further measured steps at future meetings. However, asset purchases are not on a preset course, and the Committee's decisions about their pace will remain contingent on the Committee's outlook for the labor market and inflation as well as its assessment of the likely efficacy and costs of such purchases.

To support continued progress toward maximum employment and price stability, the Committee today reaffirmed its view that a highly accommodative stance of monetary policy will remain appropriate for a considerable time after the asset purchase program ends and the economic recovery strengthens. The Committee also reaffirmed its expectation that the current exceptionally low target range for the federal funds rate of 0 to 1/4 percent will be appropriate at least as long as the unemployment rate remains above 6-1/2 percent, inflation between one and two years ahead is projected to be no more than a half percentage point above the Committee's 2 percent longer-run goal, and longer-term inflation expectations continue to be well anchored. In determining how long to maintain a highly accommodative stance of monetary policy, the Committee will also consider other information, including additional measures of labor market conditions, indicators of inflation pressures and inflation expectations, and readings on financial developments. The Committee now anticipates, based on its assessment of these factors, that it likely will be appropriate to maintain the current target range for the federal funds rate well past the time that the unemployment rate declines below 6-1/2 percent, especially if projected inflation continues to run below the Committee's 2 percent longer-run goal. When the Committee decides to begin to remove policy accommodation, it will take a balanced approach consistent with its longer-run goals of maximum employment and inflation of 2 percent.

Voting for the FOMC monetary policy action were: Ben S. Bernanke, Chairman; William C. Dudley, Vice Chairman; James Bullard; Charles L. Evans; Esther L. George; Jerome H. Powell; Jeremy C. Stein; Daniel K. Tarullo; and Janet L. Yellen. Voting against the action was Eric S. Rosengren, who believes that, with the unemployment rate still elevated and the inflation rate well below the target, changes in the purchase program are premature until incoming data more clearly indicate that economic growth is likely to be sustained above its potential rate.

Statement Regarding Purchases of Treasury Securities and Agency Mortgage-Backed Securities

2013 Monetary Policy Releases</time>


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