[原创]奥巴马手捧两个烫手的“山芋”

While the Obama administration is making diplomatic progress on some of the Mideast's thorniest security issues, problems are piling up in Asia, a region that President Barack Obama had wanted to play a bigger part in American foreign policy.

虽然奥巴马政府正在对中东的最棘手的安全问题开展外交努力,但是,问题堆积如山,亚洲又出事了,让华府的奥巴马总统头痛不已。本来想在美国外交政策中发挥更大的作用的,谁知区域矛盾激化,亚洲中日闹事,是奥巴马政府倍感交瘁。

Despite efforts to forge deeper ties with China to make East Asia more stable, Beijing's declaration of a maritime air defense zone has escalated its territorial dispute with U.S. ally Japan. The U.S. responded by flying B-52 bombers through the zone on a training mission Tuesday without informing Beijing.

尽管美国政府努力在与中国建立更深的关系,使东亚地区更稳定,但是北京的申报海上防空区的出笼,已对加强与美国的盟友密切关系著称的日本,提出了强烈的领土争端,日本坚决抵制中国。使美国不得不做出反应,用以安慰日本,所以,以执行训练任务为由,在周二没有告知北京的前提下,飞来一次的B-52轰炸机了事。

Analysts say the risk of a military clash between the Asian powers has gone up a notch — a serious concern for the U.S. because its treaty obligations mean it could be drawn in to help Japan.

分析人士认为,亚洲大国之间的军事冲突的危险升级到关键时刻 -已经成为美国严重关切的问题。因为它必须履行条约和义务,这样意味着它有责任帮助日本。

Meantime, relations between America's core allies in the region, Japan and South Korea, have deteriorated. South Korea is bitter over Japan's attitude toward its colonial past and wants more contrition from Tokyo for Japan's use of Korean sex slaves in World War II.

同时,在该地区,日本和韩国也是美国的两个核心盟友。他们之间的关系,由于历史问题也已经变得恶化。韩国民众对日本的侵略历史和日本对殖民历史的罪行不反省的态度,感到非常恼火。并希望东京为日本在朝鲜强征慰安妇问题上,做出道歉和赔偿。对第二次世界大战所犯的罪行有更多的悔悟和反省,但是遭到东京的回绝。

That complicates the strategic picture for the Obama administration as it looks to advance its so-called pivot to Asia and strengthen not just its own alliances, but get its partners in the region to collaborate more.

同时,在该地区,日韩之间是美国的核心盟友。韩国对日本殖民历史的态度感到愤慨,并希望美国说服东京,为二战时期日本利用朝鲜慰安妇问题做出最终解决办法,这对美国来说感到很难,这样加速了韩国人对美国的怀疑。

"The region is moving in a very problematic direction," said Evans Revere, a former senior U.S. diplomat and East Asia specialist. "That's the result of territorial disputes, historical issues, long-standing rivalries and the inability of countries to put history behind them and move forward in improving relations."

由此,“该地区正朝着一个非常有发生问题的方向发展着”。埃文斯里维尔--前美国高级外交官和东亚问题专家说。 “这是个领土争端的遗留历史问题,长期得不到解决,将造成该地区的新的纷争。一个国家不能把历史抛在身后,只有继续前进、面对历史,改善相互理解的关系才可以消除。

Adding to this witches' brew of bickering in the region, Washington is grappling with the threat posed by an unpredictable North Korea. The deal the U.S. orchestrated with Iran to temporarily freeze its nuclear program, despite three decades of animosity, is a stark reminder of the impasse in negotiations with Pyongyang.

在该地区的还有一个女巫妖魔一样的东西--北部朝鲜,对华盛顿的奥巴马政府来说,也是头痛不已。正在努力解决由一个不可预测的女巫妖魔--北朝朝鲜带来的威胁。虽然美国精心策划与中东伊朗暂时冻结其核计划,由于有三十年来的敌意恩怨的交易,不会顺利是可以理解的。但是处于僵局的是与平壤谈判,是一个烫手“山芋”。

Unlike Iran, North Korea already has a nuclear bomb, and there's worrying evidence it is pressing ahead with weapons development.

因为可以断定伊朗,朝鲜可能已经拥有了核弹,并有令人担忧的证据可以证明,国际武器的发展推进的分析师的预计是准确的。副总统拜登这次前往日本,中国和韩国以后,会讨论这个问题。来用以证明华盛顿政府的顶层,仍然专注于亚洲事物。

Analysts expect Vice President Joe Biden to broach these issues when he travels to Japan, China and South Korea next week — a trip to demonstrate that the top level of the administration remains focused on Asia.

国务卿克里集中在中东的地区,他的主要焦点是在中东地区的伊朗核问题,叙利亚、以及巴以和谈问题,他可能会继续下去。他争取结束叙利亚的内战,以色列人和巴勒斯坦人之间的和平目标,但是希望遥遥无期。和伊朗目前的铀浓缩协议问题,全面核协议制定将于六个月后方可以有定论。

Secretary of State John Kerry hasn't neglected the region, but his primary focus is on the Mideast and is likely to remain that way as he strives for the distant goals of an end to Syria's civil war, peace between Israelis and Palestinians, and a comprehensive nuclear agreement with Iran after the current pact expires in six months.

美国国内的危机也已经促成了。亚洲相比之下是一个次要关注的管理问题了。

今年春季奥巴马被迫取消了亚洲之行,因为财政问题部分美国政府被关闭,并切出现债务违约的威胁迹象,奥巴马的四国之行,可能预约在今后,他将前往亚洲来替补春季的遗憾。

U.S. domestic woes have contributed to a narrative that Asia is a secondary concern to the administration.

Obama was forced to cancel a four-nation trip to the region in October because of a partial U.S. government shutdown and threat of a debt default. He'll travel to Asia in April instead.

奥巴马强调亚洲外交政策是美国优先考虑的,他在2009年上台以来,一直对中国外交事务特别活跃。不与其他外国领导人的个人接触,只对中国感兴趣。奥巴马试图与新的中国领导人习近平搞好关系,他在六月加州度假胜地度假时就接见了习近平。这是一个战略考虑。也是推动世界上最大的两个经济体之间的合作,并防止其在亚太地区的竞争中,产生冲突和摩擦重要的组成部分。

Obama made Asia a foreign policy priority when he took power in 2009 and has been particularly active in engaging China. Not known for the personal touch with foreign leaders, Obama sought to cultivate a relationship with new Chinese leader Xi Jinping when he met him in June at a California resort. That's part of a strategy to promote cooperation between the world's two largest economies and prevent their rivalry in the Asia-Pacific from spawning conflict.

但是,中国在东中国设置防空区的问题,美国政府声明将被视为无用的。由于日本,韩国和台湾拒绝,并促使美国出面干涉要求,让美国政府深深担忧,它可能造成该地区的紧张局势升级。

“这确实给美国的亚洲战略蒙上了一层阴影,想努力改善(美中国)的关系, ”里维尔说。

美国表示不会改变的是它的战略部署,如何在该地区开展的军事行动,一对B-52轰炸机周二在中国新防空识别圈出现的解释是,美国官员说,是一个蓄谋已久的培训任务而已。

But China's declaration of its East China Sea air defense zone will be viewed as unhelpful. It was rejected by Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, and prompted quick expressions of deep U.S. concern that it could escalate tensions in the region.

"This really casts bit of a pall over efforts to improve (U.S.-China) relations," Revere said.

中国国防部周三表示,已经检测和监控的美国的b-52轰炸机。他们说,所有飞机通过该区域飞行时都会被监控,但是,没有提到要采取什么“防御性的紧急措施”进行监控。周六指出,对被列入公告的不符合要求的飞机的飞行将构成威胁。

邦妮格拉泽--中国问题专家,在该中心的战略与国际研究认为,这对问题预计拜登与中国的文职和军事领导人探讨以后,可能提出这个问题的解决办法。虽然,中国作为国家,有权利宣布该区域的权利,因为美国,韩国和日本都早已经有了,他们为什么不行?关键问题是中国将如何执行呢?美国感到担忧。

The U.S. said it would not change how it conducts military operations in the region and flew a pair of B-52 bombers through the zone Tuesday on what officials said was a long-planned training mission.

China's Defense Ministry said Wednesday it had detected and monitored the bombers. It said all aircraft flying through the zone would be monitored, but made no mention of a threat to take "defensive emergency measures" against noncompliant aircraft that was included in an announcement Saturday.

现在的问题是,中国将有多少次阻拦他们的飞机或者发动攻击针对人的?她担心地说。

该区域包括空置的,有日本人所管理的岛屿--尖阁列岛,中国把它称为钓鱼岛。由于日本在一年前把它国有化了这些岛屿,引起中国的反制,出现一个经常性的猫捉老鼠的游戏,--两国的海上船只和飞机不停的相互干扰指责。

Bonnie Glaser, a China specialist at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, expected Biden to raise the issue with civilian and military leaders in China. She said that while countries have a right to declare such a zone — the U.S., South Korea and Japan all have them — there will be concern about how China would enforce it.

虽然还没有遭遇擦枪走火战,但是,尽管日本一再指责中国,用雷达锁定日本的直升机和军舰,强调冲突的风险加大,但是问题没有发生。

"The question is how many times China will scramble their jets and against whom," she said.

The zone encompasses unoccupied but Japanese-administered islands that Japan calls Senkaku and China calls Diaoyu. Since Japan nationalized some of the islands a year ago, there's been a constant cat-and-mouse between the two nations' sea vessels and aircraft.

美国的盟国认为,以美国为首作为支点的支持者,应该看到一个强大的美国军事存在,和强势外交接触是必不可少的,以保持一个地区相对的稳定性,对增强地区经济繁荣是有必要的。至少保持十年。

There's been no skirmish, although Japan accused China in January of locking targeting radar on a Japanese helicopter and frigate, which underscored the risks of a clash.

Proponents of the U.S. pivot view a strong American military presence and diplomatic engagement as essential to maintaining the decades of relative stability and economic prosperity the region has enjoyed.

但是,韩国和日本之间发生的裂痕,短时间内无法弥补。而主要部分是80,000的美军,担负复杂的任务和环境变化。军国主义、民族主义抬头的日本领导人的野心意图,是否允许其军队发展,在一个和平宪法的制约下的更改是一个新的问题。如何让他发挥更积极的作用,进一步被疏远的韩国的认可,是一个很头疼的问题。这是奥巴马政府的又一个烫手“山芋”。

But the rift between South Korea and Japan, which host some 80,000 U.S. forces between them, complicates that task. The nationalist Japanese leader's intent to allow a more active role for its military, which is constrained by a pacifist constitution, has further alienated South Korea.

Victor Cha, White House director for Asia affairs under President George W. Bush, said that has raised concerns that Seoul is siding with Beijing on the issue. Although Seoul has voiced concern over the new Chinese air defense zone, he said the Obama administration faces a major strategic problem: "How do you pivot to Asia when your two main allies are deeply in conflict with each other?"

白宫主任原布什总统亚洲事务研究所助理认为,已引起关注的是,汉城与北京在这个问题上看法比较暧昧。虽然韩国已经表示关切中国的防空识别区,但是并不像日本那样激烈。他说,奥巴马政府面临的一个重大战略问题:就是“你怎么转动到亚洲这个不太灵活的轮子,?当你的两个主要盟友之间发生相互冲突,互不信任时,你的指挥还能灵验吗”?

Tomjeck翻译《Fox news》

本文内容为我个人原创作品,申请原创加分

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

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