WASHINGTON — After an internal debate, the Obama administration hasdecided to tell American commercial airlines to comply with China's demands tobe notified of any flights through a broad swath of international airspace thatit has claimed as an air defense zone, officials said Friday.

美国《纽约时报》11月29日报道,美国政府官方表示,美国总统奥巴马及其幕僚在经过了慎重讨论之后决定向美国各商业航空公司通告要求其遵守中国东海防空识别区规定。即,要求任何航班在进入中国东海防空识别区时都需要向中国报告。

Even as the United States continued to send military planes into thezone in defiance of China's declaration, officials said they expected civilianplanes to go along with Beijing's new demands out of an abundance of caution.Officials said they were worried about an accident or unintended confrontationthat could endanger civilian passengers.

美国官方表示,此次通告只适用于民用航班。目的是避免无意义的对峙以及由此引发的意外事故。 此外,以军事为目的的飞行器仍然会被派遣进入中国东海防空识别区,尽管中国对此表示不满。

The administration’s decision came hours after China said it hadscrambled fighter jets for the first time since declaring the zone last week, amove that was seen by Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and the United States asprovocative.

上个星期在中国派遣战斗机在东海防空识别区巡逻,这被日本、韩国、台湾地区以及美国视为过激行为。 奥巴马及其幕僚在此后仅仅几个小时便做出了美国客机航班需要遵守中国东海防空识别区规定这个决定。

The caution reflected in the administration’s decision contrasted withthat by Japan's government, which told its civilian airlines not to abide bythe Chinese rules after they initially began to voluntarily comply.

奥巴马幕僚的这一决定与日本政府的要求相反。日本政府要求日本客机无视中国东海防空识别区规定。

China’s assertion of jurisdiction over the airspace, designed to bolsterits claim to islands administered by Japan, is not recognized by any of themajor powers in the region but the American decision may irritate Tokyo.

中国设置东海防空识别区的目的是制衡日本对于岛屿的管理争议,而并不是挑战其他在附近区域的其他力量。尽管如此,美国的这一决定也许会激怒日本。

Earlier Friday, in announcing it had scrambled jets, China said it hadidentified two American surveillance planes and 10 Japanese aircraft in itsnewly declared air defense zone

星期五,中国声称其派遣战斗机在中国东海防空识别区发现2架美方的巡逻飞机以及10架日本的飞行器。

Although there was no indication that China’s air force showed anyhostile intent, the move, reported by official news agencies, ratcheted uptensions in a long-simmering dispute between Japan and China that could lead toa military miscalculation some fear could spiral out of control.

美国官方发言人表示,尽管中国设置东海防空识别区并不具有军事侵犯的目的,但中国的这一行动造成了紧张局面。中国和日本的军方有可能会因此擦枪走火,进而使得事态失去控制。

The United States, which is bound by treaty to defend Japan if it isattacked, directly entered the fray this week by sending unarmed B-52s into thecontested airspace, defying Chinese demands that all aircraft notify theChinese that they were coming in advance or face possible military action.

这个星期,美国根据<日美安保条例>,直接派遣了B-52轰炸机进入中国东海防空识别区,无视中国方面识别区的规定。这显示美方对此区域仍然具有使用军事手段进行干涉的可能性。

The dispute between China and Japan centers on uninhabited islands inthe East China Sea. The new air defense zone includes airspace above theislands. Analysts believe that China’s intent in declaring control was not toforce a conflict, but to try to build a case that it has as much claim to theislands as Japan, which has long administered them.

中国的东海防空识别区覆盖了在东中国海的中日争议岛屿区域。分析员认为中国的意图只是为了制衡日本在有争议岛屿的控制力度。而不是为了刺激冲突。

But China may have miscalculated in making the move, experts say,perhaps not expecting such a strong pushback from the United States and Japan.

有专家表示,中国也许没有预料到设置东海防空识别区会遭到美国和日本如此强烈的反对。

In Washington, administration officials confirmed that American militaryplanes had continued what they called routine training and surveillance flightsin the disputed airspace. The officials, who spoke on the condition ofanonymity, declined to provide specifics of the American flights on Friday,suggesting that they were classified reconnaissance missions.

华盛顿,奥巴马幕僚证实美国将会继续向该区域派遣军事飞行器进行所谓的日常训练和监视飞行。拒绝透露美国方面在星期五的行动细节,这暗示美国在中国东海防空识别区派遣飞机应该被认为是一次侦察任务。

The Chinese account in Xinhua, the state-run news agency, said the 10Japanese aircraft included the F-15 jet fighter and surveillance aircraft,though it did not say how many planes of each type were used.

据中国新华社报道,10架日本飞机在中国东海防空识别区进行侦察活动,其中包括F-15战斗机及其他类型飞行器。

An American surveillance plane was involved in a major diplomaticincident between China and the United States in 2001 when it collided with aChinese jet fighter over the South China Sea. The Chinese pilot was killed, andthe American plane made an emergency landing on Hainan Island in southernChina, an accident that badly damaged relations.

2001年,一架美国侦察机在南中国海与中国战斗机相撞,导致一名中国飞行员牺牲,而美方飞机紧急迫降在中国海南岛。这引发了中国强烈的外交抗议,并严重伤害了中美关系。

Although American officials acknowledged the risks of such accidents,they also said the Chinese air force in recent years has routinely sent itsjets aloft to identify and occasionally shadow American military missions inAsian airspace.

虽然美国官方也承认派遣战机的行动会在一定程度上具有类似如上事故的风险。但美方认为中方近些年来在此区域进行的例行飞行使得美方在此区域的军事行为蒙上阴影。

On Friday, asked for clarification on China’s intentions regarding thenew air zone, the spokesman at the Foreign Ministry, Qin Gang, said, “The AirDefense Identification Zone does not equal territorial airspace, and is not anexpansion of a country’s territorial airspace.”

星期五,中国外交部新闻发言人在被问及中国设置东海防空识别区是否会制造区域性紧张问题。 秦刚回答道,“防空识别区不等于领土空域,这也不意味着中国在扩张领空。”

The spokesman also said, “Aircraft of all countries, includingcommercial aircraft, carrying out normal flight according to international lawwill not be affected.”

秦刚说“任何一个国家航空器包括民用客机,正常航行不受影响。中国的做法符合国际惯例。”

Many countries, including the United States and Japan, have air defensezones, but the coordinates of the Chinese zone overlap with parts of theJapanese zone, setting up what defense experts have called a dangeroussituation in the airspace above the disputed islands.

包括美国和日本在内的很多国家都设置了防空识别区。 但中日防空识别区具有重叠,这使得飞行器在进入该区域时具有一定风险。

Mr. Qin, the Foreign Ministry spokesman, brushed aside questions aboutJapanese criticism of China’s air defense identification zone, or A.D.I.Z.

“Would the Japanese side tell other countries, does it have anA.D.I.Z.?” Mr. Qin said. “Has it negotiated with other countries while itestablished and enlarged its A.D.I.Z.? How large is its A.D.I.Z.?”

秦刚反击了日本关于中国防空识别区的批评性提问。他说,“日方应该告诉其他国家,它自己有没有防空识别区?当初它设立防空识别区以及此后数次扩大防空识别区的范围,有没有同别的国家商量?它自己的防空识别区范围有多大?”

An American expert on such zones said Japanese aircraft would not bedeterred from flying in the airspace above the disputed islands, known as theDiaoyu in China and the Senkaku in Japan.

一位美国专家表示,日本飞行器在飞经钓鱼岛(日方称尖阁列岛)也不会因此遭到拒绝。

The expert, Peter Dutton, the director of the China Maritime StudiesInstitute at the Naval War College in Newport, R.I., said that because Japanregards the airspace above the islands as its own, the country would continueair patrols.

“Japan must continue to enforce its sovereignty or they could lose it toChinese pressure,” Mr. Dutton said.

另一位专家,海军学院中国临海地区研究所主任,彼得.达顿,表示由于日本坚持钓鱼岛是他们自己的,所以日方还会派遣飞行器。达顿还表示,“(作为应对)日本必须继续加强宣誓主权的行为,否则就等于是丢弃该岛给中国人。”