印度最好的朋友是日本,两国也都将中国视为威胁

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导读:Japan and India are taking their friendshipto a different level. The two democracies share a lot in common and Japan isthe pivot around which the Indian policy of 'Looking East' is built. And inChina, both have a shared threat perception. 印日友谊迈向新台阶,


印度最好的朋友是日本,两国也都将中国视为威胁



Japan and India are taking their friendshipto a different level. The two democracies share a lot in common and Japan isthe pivot around which the Indian policy of 'Looking East' is built. And inChina, both have a shared threat perception.

印日友谊迈向新台阶,两国在许多方面相同之处,日本更是印度“向东看”政策的关键。两国也都将中国视为威胁。

The fields of co-operation between the twonations are many. For one, the powerful navies of India and Japan are workingclosely with each other on the high seas. The aircraft carrier and nuclearsubmarine capacity of India complements Japan's missile destroyer-dominatednavy that has recently added a giant helicopter carrier. Japan is also helpingtransform India's economy with aid and investments on very generous terms. Fromthe Delhi-Mumbai freight corridor to the possibility of bullet trains, frominvestment in manufacturing to intelligence sharing - Tokyo and New Delhi arelocked in a real tango.

印日两国在诸多领域都有合作:两国强大的海军力量在公海上合作密切,印度有航母和核潜艇,日本有以导弹驱逐舰为主的海军,最近还有了大型直升机航母,两者正好可以互补。而在帮助印度发展经济方面,日本也是慷慨解囊,多次进行援助和投资;从孟买-新德里的货运走廊,到或有可能建成的高铁,从投资制造业到情报共享——印日两国的合作已然步入正轨。

Japan is looking strategically at India forsome time now and enhancing its role as a reliable partner. Over the years,India has received $36 billion of Japanese assistance. In fact, India has beenthe largest recipient of overseas Japanese aid since 1994.

日本早已将印度当做战略中一部分,如今它已向印度证明,自己是一个可信赖的好伙伴。多年来,印度累计拿到了日本360亿美元的援助,自1994年以来,印度就已成为接受日本援助款最多的国家。

Moreover, both countries face an assertiveChinese posture in territorial claims. Japan faces these on the sea while Indiahas a land controversy. This mutual threat perception has acted as additional'glue' for this bilateral relationship. Together, they have the most powerfulnavies in Asia. Also, both have an additional interest in expanding thepermanent membership of the Security Council at the UN.

此外,两国都与自大强硬的中国有着领土争议。日本和中国在海上折腾,印度和中国在陆上对视,中国这一共同的威胁成为了双边关系的“粘合剂”。印日两国都拥有亚洲范围内最为强大的海军,另外两国也都渴望成为联合国的常任理事国。

Japanhas walked the friendship talk for over a generation now, first with the Marutiand now with the Metro rail.

从Maruti到城铁,贯穿一代人生活的印日友谊

(译注:Maruti,日本铃木汽车的印度子公司)

The Indian middle class got their firstaffordable car in Maruti, which was from the Japanese firm Suzuki. And ittransformed India's urban outlook. Similarly, anyone who has taken a ride onthe Delhi Metro knows what a radical change it is for urban commuting. Hereagain, a Japanese soft loan of $3 billion was helpful. Japan also provides thetechnical expertise, which has made smooth construction of the Metro possible.

印度中产阶级第一辆买得起的车往往就是松下的子公司Maruti出品的。这种车甚至改变了印度的城市景观。同样的,但凡乘坐过德里铁路的人,必然会明白城铁给当地带来的巨大变化。日本在印度更是投放了30亿美元的软贷款,对印度的发展起到了莫大帮助;在地铁建造的过程中,日本还提供了先进的技术,帮助印度顺利完工。

Japanis helping construct the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC), which is setto turbo-charge the Indian economy and boost manufacturing.

The DMIC is going to transform not justIndia's creaky infrastructure but potentially the entire Indian economy. Thisis a mega project costing over $90 billion. Japan has provided an initial loanof $4.5 billion for this project. DMIC is a 1,483 km long dedicated freighttrain corridor across six states and two Union Territories. On both sides of thecorridor, an area of 150-200 km will be developed as industrial townships.

日本正在帮助印度修建德里孟买工业走廊,这一项目将促进印度和制造业的发展德里孟买工业走廊的建造不仅将会改善印度老朽不堪的基础设施现状,甚至还有可能影响整个印度的经济。工业走廊项目耗资巨大,约有900亿美元,日本已向印度提供了45亿美元的初始贷款。德里孟买工业走廊为货运列车而建,全场1483公里,途经6个邦和2个联邦属地。走廊两侧150到200公里的区域将会发展为工业城镇。

Insheer scale, the DMIC is awesome.

工业走廊的潜力无穷大

It aims at doubling the employmentpotential in 7 years while industrial output is projected to go up three timesin 9 years. Exports from the project and its periphery are likely to quadruplein 8 years. As the Japanese expertise and money are combined with Indiancapabilities for this project, the key impact will be in terms of industrialtownships that will be developed around the corridor. Gujarat and Rajasthanwill gain the maximum as 70% of the infrastructure will be developed in thesetwo states. But the project will really boost India's manufacturing sector asit will open many possibilities along the route.

印度计划在7年内将就业潜力翻一番,同时工业产值在9年内翻上3倍。通过工业走廊和相关项目,出口额有望在8年内上升至原来的四倍。日本的专业知识和资金将帮助日本修建好这一项目,而这一项目将带动周边地带的发展,使这些地区演变为工业城镇。古吉拉特邦和拉贾斯坦邦获益最多,因为这一项目70%的部分都将在这两个邦内进行。不过,这一走廊将开发出沿途地区的潜力,这才是真正能促进印度制造业发展的地方。

Japanhas also signalled that it is keen to bring its famous bullet train to India.

日本或有意将高铁引入印度

In a way, bullet trains symbolise Japan'sburgeoning ecosystem. They are also extremely expensive and require the kind oftechnology that India does not have. An investment of $10 billion will berequired to introduce these trains here. As of now, India is looking at speedsof up to 350 km an hour while the government had admitted in the Parliamentthat Indian trains run on an average of 40 km/hour. The first bullet train willbe connecting Mumbai and Ahmedabad, reducing the travel time to about 2.5hours, instead of the current 6.5 hours. With both countries moving forward onthis proposal, India's outdated train system will soon get a swanky new avatar.

在某种意义上,高铁象征了日本生机勃勃的生态系统。此外,高铁价格高昂,需要高科技支持,这是印度所没有的的。印度政府在议会上已经承认,现在的铁路平均速度只有40公里每小时,此外,高铁引入印度需要100亿美元的投资。现在印度人正在考虑修建时速350公里的高铁;印度第一条高铁将连接孟买和艾哈迈达巴德,两地间的旅途时间将从目前的6.5小时缩减为两个半小时左右。两国正在这一项目上携手共进,印度老旧的交通系统不日或许就将酷霸狂拽了。

Japan'sPM Shinzo Abe has a personal commitment to India.

日本首相安倍是印度人民的老朋友

The Japanese Prime Minister is an oldfriend of India. In his book Utsukushii Kuni E (Towards a Beautiful Country),he has elaborated his vision, saying that the Indo-Japanese relations could beas important as the Sino-Japanese relations. When Abe addressed the IndianParliament way back in 2007, he termed this friendship as "...theconfluence of the two seas." He went further, saying India and Japan couldbe as important as Japan and the US. Thus Japan's leadership has investedserious political capital in the future of its friendship with India.

日本首相是印度的老朋友了。在安倍的大作《美しい国へ》(译注:英文名“Towards a Beautiful Country”,国内翻译为《给美丽的祖国》)一书中,安倍详尽阐述了他的观点,曾说印日关系和中日关系一样重要。2007年安倍还曾给印度议会致信,信中提到印日友谊“正如两海汇流一般”。安倍更进一步指出,印日之间的关系可以发展得和日美关系一样重要。可见日本的领导层是真心重视印日友谊的未来,不惜大手笔投入政治资本的。

Japanand India are coming very close in international security relations.

日本和印度在安全领域合作密切

India and Japan are beefing up theirsecurity co-operation and coming closer in the field of defence. This isbecause both are faced with common threats and both nurture the common valuesof democracy. The countries also signed a path-breaking joint declaration onsecurity back in 2008. The security co-operation has deepened over time andincluded joint exercises between the two navies on the high seas. Last year, 4ships and 1,400 sailors from the Indian side took part in it but next year, itis set to get bigger. Japan is also entering the Indian defence market and hasoffered its multi-capability US-2 amphibious aircraft to India.

印日两国正在加强双方在安全和国防领域的合作。其中原因有两方面:一是两国面临着共同的味儿,此外两国都乃是秉承民主价值观的国家。两国在2008年突破性地发表了安全联合声明,此后两国海军在公海上进行军演,在安全领域的合作愈发涉入。去年的军演中,印度方面派出了4艘船舰,1400名军人,而明年军演的规模还会更大。日本产品还进入了印度的国防市场,比如US-2水上飞机就是日本提供给印度的。

India and Japan share a lot of soft power.

日印在软实力方面有共鸣

Japan appreciates the fact that the Indianjudge, Justice Radhagobind Pal, dissented from the verdict that sentencedJapanese leaders as war criminals in the 1946 trial after Japan's defeat inWWII. Interestingly, his was the sole dissent in this case. Both countries havea common heritage in Buddhism and Japan has funded many Buddhist sites in Indiain terms of conservation and infrastructure development. On the entertainmentfront, Indian kids love Japanese characters such as Doremon, Shinchen and NinjaHattori, which are by far the most popular cartoons here in India. Finally, youcannot miss Japanese food at any party thrown by the Indian elite. Indians havea yen for sushi.

日本十分感谢当年印度法官RadhagobindPal在战后1946年的审判中反对将日本领袖们定位战犯的做法。有趣的是,他是当时唯一持不同声音的人。两国都有佛教遗产,日本不仅投资印度的基础设施建设,还曾出资帮助印度进行文物保护。而在娱乐业方面,哆啦A梦、Shinchen和忍者哈特君等角色颇受印度儿童喜爱,是印度到目前为止最受欢迎的卡通形象。最后,日本美食也发挥了很大功劳,在印度精英的聚会上,日本料理往往是必不可少的。寿司也广受印度人民喜爱。

This relationship is likely to grow.

两国关系将继续深化发展

It won't be wrong to assume thatIndia-Japan relations are entering a new era. For long, Japan took a cue fromthe US in its foreign policy. But this is changing fast and Japan is now farmore assertive in its foreign affairs. The natural complements of the powerfulmaritime forces and a commitment to democracy are propelling the two countrieson a new trajectory directly and not just via Washington. Both counties areseeing billions of dollars of new investments and trade between them. And bothhave much to gain by coming strategically together as China remains a commonthreat to Tokyo and New Delhi. India will do well to nurture this relationshipcarefully.

印日关系无疑将步入一个新台阶。长久以来,日本在外交事务方面都唯美国马首是瞻,怎料世事变化如此之快,日本如今在外交方面越发自信自主,早已不是当年的样子了。有强大的海军力量与民主体制这两个共同点,两国自然而然会走到一起,而这次不需要美国的指示。两国投资与贸易往来蓬勃发展,且印日在战略上都面临着中国这个共同威胁。为此,印度也会小心翼翼地维护和培养两国之间的关系。


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