吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜

pcwml 收藏 60 39978
导读:Civil wars are merely an indication that even people who are closely related by ethnicity, culture, history, and geography, can have deep and divisive differences. Civil war has also been connected with genocide in many instances, and for many people

Civil wars are merely an indication that even people who are closely related by ethnicity, culture, history, and geography, can have deep and divisive differences. Civil war has also been connected with genocide in many instances, and for many people, it is considered the most shameful kind of war, even though according to the great François Fénelon, “All wars are civil wars, because all men are brothers.”

内战的意义仅在于指出了一个现象,那就是即使在种族、文化、历史和地理上紧密联系的人们之中,依然可以存在深刻且具有分裂性的差异。内战在很多情况下还与种族灭绝相联系,对许多人而言,这是最可耻的一种战争,尽管伟大的弗朗索瓦·芬乃伦说过:“全部的战争都是内战,因为全人类都是兄弟姐妹。”

10.Bosnian War

波斯尼亚战争

1992-1995

吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜



The Bosnian War was a brutal, complex, and ugly conflict that followed the fall of communism in Europe.In 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined several republics of the former Yugoslavia and declared independence, which triggered a civil war that lasted for four years. Bosnia’s population was a multicultural mix of Muslim Bosniaks, Orthodox Serbs, and Catholic Croats. The Bosnian Serbs, well-armed and backed by neighboring Serbia, laid siege to the city of Sarajevo in early April, 1992. They targeted mainly the Muslim population, but killed many other Bosnian Serbs and Croats with rocket, mortar, and sniper attacks that went on for nearly three and a half years.As shells fell on the Bosnian capital, nationalist Croat and Serb forces carried out brutal “ethnic cleansing” attacks throughout the countryside. Finally, in 1995, UN air strikes and United Nations sanctions helped bring all parties to a peace agreement. Estimates of the war’s fatalities vary widely, ranging from 90,000 to 300,000.

波斯尼亚战争是自欧洲的共产主义崩溃后,一场随之而起的残酷、复杂而又丑陋的冲突。1991年,波斯尼亚和黑山联合几个前南斯拉夫的加盟共和国宣布独立,随之引发了一场长达四年的内战。波斯尼亚的人口组成是多种文化的混合体,包括穆斯林的波斯尼亚族、东正教的塞尔维亚族和天主教的克罗地亚族。在1992年的四月初,全副武装的波斯尼亚塞尔维亚人在邻国塞尔维亚的支持下包围了萨拉热窝。他们将矛头主要对准了穆斯林人口,但是火箭弹和迫击炮也杀害了许多波斯尼亚的塞尔维亚人和克罗地亚人,狙击手的袭击持续了近三年半。在波斯尼亚首都的枪林弹雨中,克罗地亚和塞尔维亚的民族主义武装开始进行遍布全国的“种族清洗”。最后,在1995年,联合国的空袭和制裁帮助各方达成了一项和平协议。这场战争的估计死亡人数差距很大,从9万到30万不等。

9.Nigerian Civil War

尼日利亚内战

1967-1970

吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜


The Nigerian Civil War, also known as Nigerian-Biafran War, was the result of economic, ethnic, cultural, and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria. Like many other African nations, Nigeria was an artificial construct of imperialism—in this case created by the British, who had neglected to consider religious, linguistic, and ethnic differences when they drew up the borders of the new country. The civil war began on July 6, 1967, when Nigerian Federal troops advanced in two columns into Biafra. Nigeria, which won independence from Britain in 1960, had at that time a population of sixty million people consisting of nearly three hundred different ethnic and cultural groups. The war cost Nigeria a great deal in terms of lives, money, and its standing in the world. It has been estimated that up to three million people may have died due to the conflict—mostly from hunger and disease. It was one of the bloodiest civil wars of the last few decades.

尼日利亚内战,人们也称之为尼日利亚-比夫拉战争,这是一场由于经济、民族、文化和宗教紧张局势引起的,在尼日利亚多民族间发生的战争。就像很多其他非洲国家一样,尼日利亚是一个有英帝国主义建立的国家,他们却没有考虑宗教、语言和种族差异而起草了建立了这个新国家于她的的边界。1967年7月6日,当尼日利亚联邦军队分成两列进入比夫拉,内战也由此开始。艰难的在1960年从英国赢得独立,这个由三百多个民族于文化群体组成的6000w人的国家。然而那场战争消耗尼日利亚乃以或缺的生活于金钱,并丢失了世界上的地位。据估计,多达三百万人可能由于疾病或者饥饿死于这场冲突。在最后几十年这可以说是最血腥的一场内战。

8.Thousand Days’ War

千日之战

1899-1902

吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜



The War of a Thousand Days was a Colombian civil war between the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party and its radical factions that resulted over 100,000 deaths, extensive property damage, and national economic ruin.The Liberal Party represented coffee plantation owners and rich merchants who favored a laissez-faire economic policy. Largely excluded from participation in government after the Conservative victory of 1885, they were further distressed by the drastic downturn in the international price of coffee; by 1899, many coffee growers were operating at a loss.During the next three years, disorganized but highly disruptive guerrilla-style warfare raged in the rural areas, with great destruction of property and loss of life. Unable to pacify the countryside by force, the Conservatives finally offered amnesty and political reform in 1902. By November of the same year, the two most important Liberal leaders, Rafael Uribe and Benjamín Herrera, surrendered after negotiating peace treaties which promised amnesty, free elections, and political reform.

1899-1902

这场由哥伦比亚保守党派于自由党及其激进派系之间的战争持续了1000天,超过100000人死亡,与巨额的财产损失,国家经济也因此崩溃。自由党代表着咖啡种植园主和那些富有的的商人,而他们青睐一个自由放任的经济政策。保守党胜利后的1885年,他们被很大程度上排除参与政府,这进一步痛苦而剧烈使国际咖啡价格下滑;到1899年,许多咖啡种植者都在亏损。接下来的三年里,游击战争肆虐在农村,破坏了一切,无数的人和资源与财富被破坏。由于无法平息的农民的抗争,保守党终于同意特赦并且代应在1902年进行****。同年11月,两个最重要的自由主义领导人,拉斐尔·乌里韦和本杰明埃雷拉,宣布投降谈判并且缔结和平条约后,承诺进行大赦,并且举行自由选举和****。

7.Sri Lankan Civil War

斯里兰卡内战

1983-2009

吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜


In April 2011, the UN released a report on human rights violations during the last phase of the twenty-six-year-long Sri Lankan Civil War, in which over 100,000 people lost their lives. The war was fought between the brutally effective Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and the local government, and it is estimated that at least 40,000 civilians died in the five months before the war’s end in May 2009, when the Tigers surrendered.Most locals greeted the end of the civil war in 2009 with jubilation—but although the fighting has stopped, the restoration of the rule of law and the proper investigation of rights abuses and alleged war crimes by both sides has not yet occurred. On February 12, 2013, the UN Human Rights High Commissioner Navi Pillay stated that Sri Lanka has broken its promise to improve human rights, and has failed to investigate wartime atrocities

在2011年4月,联合国发布了一份关于那场历时26年、死亡人数超过十万的斯里兰卡内战后期中的人权侵犯的报告。这场战争的交战双方是野蛮高效的泰米尔伊拉姆解放猛虎组织和当地政府,战争结束于2009年五月猛虎组织投降,而在此之前的五个月内据估计至少有40000平民死亡。大多数当地人欢呼着迎接内战在2009年的结束,但是尽管战斗已经结束,法律秩序仍未恢复,对于腐败滥权和双方所谓战争罪行的调查也仍未开始。在2013年2月12日,联合国人权高级专员纳威皮雷表示,斯里兰卡违背了其改善人权的承诺,也未能成功进行战时暴行的调查。

6.Angolan Civil War

安哥拉内战

1975-2002

吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜



The people of Angola fought bravely against occupation and tyranny to gain their independence from imperialist rulers. Unfortunately, right after Angola became a free nation, the local authorities and political wings lusted after power over the newly formed country. Civil war seemed to be inevitable. The chief cause of this war, in the end, was a power struggle between the popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), and the National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). It was one of the bloodiest and most prolonged civil wars of modern history, lasting for nearly twenty-seven years. The war began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal in 1975, and finally ended only when Jonas Savimbi, leader of UNITA, was killed by government troops in 2002. The two sides then agreed to a ceasefire, soon to be followed by elections. The war left at least 500,000 people dead, and an economy in ruins.

安哥拉人民勇敢地与占领和暴政战斗,从帝国主义统治者的手中赢得了独立。不幸的是,当安哥拉成为一个自由的国家之后,当地政府与各政治派别立即就这个新生国家的权力展开了争夺。内战看来无法避免。最终引起这场战争的主因就是安哥拉人民解放运动(MPLA)和安哥拉彻底独立全国同盟(UNITA)之间的权力争夺。这是现代史中最血腥和最漫长的内战之一,持续了将近27年。自1975年安哥拉从葡萄牙手中宣布独立后战争即告开始,一直到2002年UNITA的领袖若纳斯萨文比被政府军杀死战争才告结束。双方随后同意停火,不久后继而举行大选。这场战争留下了至少50万亡灵和一片废墟中的经济。

5.Secret War

秘密战争

1953-1975

吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜


The “Secret War” in Laos was a crime committed by the American government (by now this has been attested as historical fact, rather than personal opinion). It was characterized by political planning steeped in ignorance, deception, and arrogant self-interest; and by a disregard of the real problems and issues at hand. Unfortunately, the government’s evil little power games had a human cost. It has been estimated that as many as 450,000 civilians in Laos, and 600,000 in Cambodia, lost their lives. Figures for refugees exceed a million. In addition, the widespread use of toxic chemical defoliants created a massive health crisis, which naturally fell most heavily on children, on nursing mothers, and on the aged and the already sick—and its effects still linger to this day. The Secret War was the very definition of what we should call a War of Shame.

在老挝的“秘密战争”是美国政府犯下的罪行之一(这个观点目前已经是一个事实而不仅仅是一家之言了)。它(这场战争)的特征是忽视当前真正的问题和困难,沉浸于无知,欺诈和傲慢而自私的政治计划和手段中。不幸的是,政府那小小的邪恶权力游戏是以人的生命为代价的。据估计老挝的45万平民以及柬埔寨的60万平民因(战争)而失去生命。而难民的数量则超过一百万。此外,广泛地使用有毒的“落叶剂”带来了一场大规模的健康危机,儿童,哺乳期的妇女,老人和病人首当其冲,至今危害仍在持续。“秘密战争”就是典型的可耻的战争。

4.Somali Civil War

索马里内战

1991至今

吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜



Somalia is not only populated by Somalis; it’s actually home to a number of different peoples, several of which opposed Siad Barre, the Dictator of Somalia, in the late 1980s. In response, he began attacking them with his army—but they fought back and removed him from power. Barre was still popular with many Somalis, however, and a revolution took place in the early 1990s to reinstate him. After his return to power, a large part of northern Somalia declared itself independent from the rest of the country, though it remains largely unrecognized. After years of war, Somalia lies in ruins—and the UN continues to send peacekeeping forces to facilitate the distribution of aid and the rebuilding of Somalia’s society. It’s unofficially estimated that nearly a million of people lost their lives from war-related causes.

索马里并不是只有索马里人居住;事实上这里许多民族的家园,其中的许多民族从1980年代后期就开始反抗独裁者巴瑞。而作为回应,巴瑞开始调动他的军队攻击这些人——不过这些民族奋起反击并将他赶下了台。但是巴瑞仍受许多索马里人欢迎,而从1990年代早期开始的革命是他得到了回复。从他重新上台之后,索马里北部的一大片区域宣布自己脱离索马里而独立,尽管这一声明并未被广泛地受到认可。经过多年的战争后,索马里已经成为一片废墟——而联合国则不断派出维和部队来帮助援助物资的派发以及索马里社会的重建。根据非官方的估计有大概近一百万人由于战争相关的原因失去了他们的生命。

-------------译者:xish-审核者:寒灯独夜人------------

3.Taiping Rebellion

太平天国暴动

1850-1864

吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜



This is one of the most massive and most bloody civil wars the world has ever known. No other event devastated nineteenth-century China like the Taiping Rebellion. It was sparked by the leadership of one man from South China, Hong Xiuquan, who in 1847 failed the imperial examinations for the third time and fell into a delirium which lasted thirty days. When he recovered, he believed that he had been chosen to conquer China and establish the Taiping Tianguo—the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Harmony. Gathering followers (at first from the poor masses), he and his recruits gradually built up an army and political organization that went on to sweep across China. By the late 1850s, they controlled over a third of the country. Their movement was so strong and popular that it took the central government millions of dollars and fifteen years to defeat them. Not until 1864 was the rebellion brutally put down; it’s estimated to have been responsible for the deaths of more than twenty million people.

这是世界上已知规模最大,最血腥的内战之一。没有哪个事件对十九世纪的中国造成的灾难比得上太平天国暴动。事情起源于洪秀全——一个南中国人,在他在1847年第三次在科举考试中落榜之后就陷入了一种持续了30多天的癔症之中。当他从癔症中恢复过来的时候,他相信他是被选中来征服中国并创立太平天国的人——一个和谐的理想国度。通过不断聚集追随者(最初他们来源于劳苦大众),他和他的追随者们逐渐建立起军队和政治组织并很快就席卷中国。在1850年代的最后几年里,他们几乎控制了整个中国的三分之一。太平天国的规模非常庞大而广泛以至于中央政府花了数以百万的金钱和15年的时间才击败它。直到1864年暴动才被血腥地镇压。据估计因太平天国暴动而死的人要超过2000万。

2.Wars of the Roses

玫瑰战争

1455–1485

吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜


The Wars of the Roses were some of the most important historical events of the medieval era. Their impact in England was immense. They were sporadic civil wars fought between members of the House of Lancaster, whose symbol was the red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was the white rose. Both houses were branches of the House of Plantagenet, tracing their descent from King Edward III. The rivalry began in 1399 when King Richard II was overthrown by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster. But the actual wars didn’t break out until 1455, when Richard, Duke of York, defeated the Lancastrians in the First Battle of St Albans.The Wars of the Roses ended with the accession of King Henry VII, who founded the Tudor dynasty and symbolically united the White and Red Roses to create the Tudor Rose.

玫瑰战争是中世纪中最重要的几个历史事件之一。其对英格兰的影响是巨大的。玫瑰战争是指兰开斯特家族(红玫瑰)和约克家族(白玫瑰)间的零星战争。这两个家族都是金雀花家族的分支,都拥有爱德华三世的血统。两个家族的争斗始于1399,当理查德二世被他的堂兄弟,兰开斯特公爵亨利·博林布鲁克所推翻时就开始了。但战争实际开始于1455年,约克公爵理查德在圣奥尔本斯的初次战斗中战胜兰开斯特人。玫瑰战争以亨利七世(都铎王朝的创始人)登基作为结束的标志,这标志着红白玫瑰的统一和都铎玫瑰的诞生。

1.An Lushan Rebellion

A.D. 755-763

1.安禄山之乱

公元755至公元763年

吓尿了:外国人评判十大内战 中国两度上榜


This civil war is often overlooked and ignored—and it’s definitely one war China would like to forget. It remains to this day the deadliest civil war in world history. The death toll surpassed even that of the Taiping Rebellion, and has been topped only by a couple of regular wars since then, with World War II being one of them.The An Shi Rebellion as it is also known took place during the Tang Dynasty, from A.D. 755 to A.D. 763, and spanned the reign of three Tang emperors. Fortunately for the Tangs, An Lushan’s competing Yan Dynasty soon began to disintegrate from within. In January 757, An Lushan’s son became upset by his father’s threats against his friends at court, and killed him. Shortly afterwards, he in turn was murdered by An Lushan’s old friend, Shi Siming. This friend attempted to continue An Lushan’s program of rebellion, but also ended up being murdered by his own son in 761. But although the Tang eventually defeated the An Lushan Rebellion, the effort left the empire weaker than ever before—and it is estimated that over thirty-five million people lost their lives during this blood-bath of a war.

这场内战往往被忽视和忽略,这绝对是一场中国想要忘记的战争。直到今天它仍然是在世界历史上最致命的一场内战。死亡人数甚至超过了对太平天国,从那时起,只被两场常规战争超越,二战是其中之一。

它也被称为安史之乱,发生在唐朝,从公元755至公元763年,跨越了三个唐代帝王的统治。但是唐朝也很幸运。安禄山的反叛燕王朝很快就开始从内部瓦解, 公元757年1月,安禄山的儿子对父亲在朝堂上对他的朋友们的威胁感到沮丧,然后杀了他。不久之后,他又被安禄山的老朋友——史思明谋杀了。这位朋友试图继续安禄山叛乱方案,但也被自己的儿子谋杀,在公元761年。

不过,虽然最终战胜了唐安史之乱,但战争的消耗却使帝国比之前的任何时候都更加弱。据估计,在这一场血战中,超过3500万的人失去了他们的生命。(译者:Exelan_zhang-审核者:寒灯独夜人)


22
回复主贴
聚焦 国际 历史 社会 军事 精选

热门评论

9楼军特

扯淡,要说内战,前十名都是中国,在中国很多历史上都是以人口来说一个国家的实力的,从秦始皇统一中国开始,中国就已经是人口大国的第一名,几千年的历史中不知道发生了多少内战,随便说几个都比楼主说的规模大。在那个时代的欧洲,估计他们还过着茹毛饮血的野蛮人生活

9楼 军特
扯淡,要说内战,前十名都是中国,在中国很多历史上都是以人口来说一个国家的实力的,从秦始皇统一中国开始,中国就已经是人口大国的第一名,几千年的历史中不知道发生了多少内战,随便说几个都比楼主说的规模大。在那个时代的欧洲,估计他们还过着茹毛饮血的野蛮人生活

没办法,那会中国的战争就是世界战争。

黄帝跟蚩尤的战争,惹不起的雅利安人只好逃亡欧洲。

汉跟黄帝直系后代匈奴的战争,欧洲就分别经历安息、北匈奴等失败者一遍遍蹂躏。

北朝跟铁勒等部战争,欧洲又经历保加尔、柔然、瓦拉几亚等一波波战败者的征服。

唐跟突厥的战争...,欧洲的奥斯曼时代开始了。


9楼 军特
扯淡,要说内战,前十名都是中国,在中国很多历史上都是以人口来说一个国家的实力的,从秦始皇统一中国开始,中国就已经是人口大国的第一名,几千年的历史中不知道发生了多少内战,随便说几个都比楼主说的规模大。在那个时代的欧洲,估计他们还过着茹毛饮血的野蛮人生活

那个时候的欧洲战争,对咱们中国来说充其量是村斗级别的。

2楼Jokery

中国这么大一个国家,民族众多,要是没有这么多的内战,估计现在分裂的跟欧洲一样

这个记录确实没什么值得炫耀的,都是自己人杀自己人!不过,实事求是的说,古代中国内乱和改朝换代的战争那么多,出动几十万军队的战争也是多如牛毛啊。

60条评论
点击加载更多

发表评论

更多精彩内容

热门话题

更多

经典聚焦

更多
发帖 向上 向下