美国五角大楼强势解析中国“七种武器”

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导读:Two new models of stealthy jet fighter. A new(ish) aircraft carrier. Separate ballistic missiles for targeting orbital satellites and ships at sea. A host of cyberespionage tools. Everybody's already heard about China's main new weapon systems, devel

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Two new models of stealthy jet fighter. A new(ish) aircraft carrier. Separate ballistic missiles for targeting orbital satellites and ships at sea. A host of cyberespionage tools. Everybody's already heard about China's main new weapon systems, developed and deployed in alternating fits of secrecy and pageantry over the past decade of the Middle Kingdom's explosive economic and military growth.

两种新型的隐形战机。一艘翻新的航母。反卫星和反舰的弹道导弹。一堆网络间谍工具。每个人都已经听说过中国的主要新武器系统,在伴随着中央王国的爆炸式经济军事成长,这些武器都在保密和华丽展示的交替中完成了开发和部署,

But what about China's other high-tech war gear -- those air, sea, space and ground systems that round out Beijing's fast-modernizing armed forces and underpin the ruling Chinese Communist Party's expanding ability to influence, or even bully, its Asian neighbors? The latest installment (.pdf) of the Pentagon's annual report on Chinese military developments, released today, highlights some of these lesser-known but still potentially world-changing weapons.

但是中国的其他高科技武器在那里呢?这些包括空中的,海里的,太空的和陆地的武器使北京军事现代化的军事力量迅速丰满起来,加强了中国gcd扩大影响力的能力,甚至威吓他的亚洲邻居的能力。今天发布的五角大楼的中国军力发展年度报告集中强调了这些鲜为人知但又可以改变世界的武器。

Export drone

出口型无人飞行器

Unveiled in November at the Zhuhai air show in southern China following seven years of development, the Yi Long drone -- Beijing's $1-million answer to the more expensive U.S. Predator and Reaper -- is likely meant for domestic use and export, according to the Pentagon's China report.

根据五角大楼的中国报告,中国花了7年时间开发的翼龙无人飞行器在珠海航空展中被揭开面纱。价值100万美元的翼龙飞行器是北京对昂贵的美国猎食者和收割者的回应。这可能意味着自用和出口。

"Chinese arms are less expensive than those offered by the top international arms suppliers, although they are also generally of lower quality and reliability," the report notes. But Beijing's intended buyers -- the worst African and Middle Eastern autocracies, for the most part -- usually don't mind these drawbacks, as they're often embargoed from buying better-quality arms from mainstream suppliers.

报告提醒“中国产武器的价格比国际高端的武器供应商的便宜不少,然而一般的质量和可靠性是较低的”。但是北京的意定买家是--最糟糕的的非洲和中东独裁者,绝大部分都不在乎这些缺点,因为他们都被禁止从主流供货商处购买质量较好的武器。

And that's exactly why the world should worry about Yi Long and other export-optimized Chinese drones. They're not the best systems in the world, but they're highly likely to wind up in the hands of exactly the kind of people who can't be trusted with them.

那就是世界为什么需要担心翼龙和其他中国产的出口型无人飞行器的原因。那些武器不是世界最好的,但是它们最后极可能会落到那些不可信认的人的手中。

Knock-off attack copters

攻击型直升机

Since last year, the ground-warfare branch of the Chinese People's Liberation Army has "benefited from increased production of new equipment, including the Z-10 and Z-19 attack helicopters," according to the U.S. China report. Roughly analogue to the American Cobra gunship and Kiowa scout, respectively, the Z-10 and Z-19 could provide PLA ground troops their first reliable close air support -- a major combat advantage.

根据美国的中国报告,从去年开始,解放军的地面部队从"提高新装备的产量,包括了Z-10和Z-19攻击型直升机”中得益。这两种型号相当于美国的眼镜蛇武装直升机和基奥瓦侦查型直升机。Z-10和Z-19都可以为解放军地面部队提供第一次可靠的近距空中支援--一个重要的作战优势。

But technically the Chinese shouldn't possess at least one of the helicopters. While the Z-19 is a copy of a copy of a French design and just might be legal (Beijing did legally acquire the rights to Paris' original blueprints), the Z-10 relies on engine controls illegally acquired from a Canadian subsidiary of American manufacturer Pratt & Whitney.

但是法律上中国人不应该装备至少一种型号的直升机。因为Z-19是仿制了再仿制的法国设计,也许是合法的(北京已经从巴黎购得了原设计的版权),但是Z-10的发动机则是从美国惠普的加拿大分公司处非法获得的。

The company, which also builds engines for American stealth fighters, pleaded guilty to the unauthorized technology transfer last summer and paid a $75-million fine, the China report notes. But it's too late to prevent Beijing from producing scores or even hundreds of Z-10s using the illicit hardware.

中国报告暗示惠普公司还是美国隐形战机的发动机供货商,它于去年夏季承认了未经授权而转让技术的罪责和支付了7500万的罚金。但是已经太迟了,北京已经可以使用非法装备生产数以百计的直升机了。

Digital command

数字化指挥

For many decades the three-million-strong PLA -- by far the world's largest active army -- banked on sheer mass over combat prowess, planning to overwhelm battlefield adversaries with waves of infantry and tanks instead of maneuvering for advantage.

数十年以来三百万的解放军--目前世界最大的军队--总是依靠数量优势多过作战能力--总是计划用步兵海和坦克海压倒敌人而不是运用机动优势。

That's beginning to change. "To develop a new cadre of officers, the PLA is reforming its academies to cultivate junior officers proficient with and capable of leveraging technology in all warfighting functions," the China report states. To this end, last year some Chinese army training exercises banned paper maps, forcing officers to use computerized systems for command and control -- a practice that has long been commonplace in the U.S. military.

这是开始在改变。这份中国报告指出“为了培训新的骨干军官,解放军进行军校改革以培养初级军官可以熟练使用新科技的各种作战功能。”到最后,去年的一些军事演习放弃了纸质地图,强迫军官使用电脑化的系统进行指挥和管理--这在美军已经是司空见惯的做法了。

Space beacon

太空信号站

As Chinese forces become more high tech, they increasingly need access to space-based systems to plot their movements and guide their weapons. Last year the PLA launched six copies of its Beidou positioning satellite, Beijing's answer to the American GPS spacecraft.

当中国军队变得更高科技时,他们日益需要太空系统策划行动和为武器导向。去年,解放军发射了六枚北斗定位卫星,北斗是北京应对美国GPS航天器开发的。

Beidou allows ground, air and sea forces to determine their location on Earth with a high degree of accuracy -- but only within east Asia. Beidou is a geostationary constellation that, so far, only covers China and its immediate surroundings.

北斗允许海陆空部队精确地确定他们的位置--但是只在东亚范围。北斗是地球静止轨道卫星,目前只覆盖中国和它的周围环境。

The six GPS-style spacecraft that Beijing placed in orbit last year "completed the regional network as well as the in-orbit validation phase for the global network," according to the China report. In other words, Beidou could get a lot more expansive in coming years, laying the navigational foundation for Chinese military deployments all over the world.

北京在去年送进轨道的六枚GPS型的卫星“完成了区域网络以及全球网络的轨道阶段的验证”。换句话说,北斗在将来还可以更大的扩展,为中国军队将来的全球部署打下导航基础。

Sea guardian

海洋守护者

The sea, more than any other domain, is the focus of the PLA's modernization. Last summer's first test cruise of the refurbished Soviet aircraft carrier Lioaning symbolized Beijing's determination to eventually dominate the western Pacific Ocean.

在解放军现代化里,海洋比其他领域更得到重视。去年夏天,翻新的前苏联航母辽宁号进行了第一次海试,标志了北京最后控制西太平洋的决心。

But at her debut, Liaoning was basically defenseless. Whereas American, French and Russian flattops sail alongside powerful escort ships bristling with radar-guided defensive missiles, Liaoning sailed alone. The PLA Navy lacks large, modern warships with the equivalent of the U.S. Navy's Aegis radar and Standard missile.

但是辽宁号的第一次演出是基本无防御能力的。但是美国,法国和俄罗斯的航母都有强大的护卫舰艇和密集的雷达导向防御导弹的保护着。辽宁号则是独自起航。解放军海军缺少装有相当于美国海军的神盾雷达和标准导弹的大型军舰。

That, however, is changing. Last year China launched the first of up to a dozen Type 052D destroyers, likely meant to equal U.S. warships' ability to protect aircraft carriers. The new destroyer type includes what the China report describes as "the PLA Navy’s first multipurpose vertical launch system" for rapidly firing large numbers of missiles.

但是那正在改变。去年中国下水了第一打的052D驱逐舰,这意味着(解放军)可能拥有与美国相等的航母护航能力。美国的中国报告形容新型驱逐舰“是解放军第一种用于迅速发射大量导弹的多用途垂直发射系统。”

Arsenal sub

核武潜艇

China is making huge progress with its undersea military capabilities, building several new nuclear- and diesel-powered submarines per year. China's subs are still smaller, louder and less sophisticated than American models, but Beijing has signaled its clear intention to some day match the U.S. sub-for-sub.

中国在海面下的军事能力正取得巨大的进展,每年都在建造几艘新的核动力和柴油动力潜艇。与美国的潜艇相比中国的潜艇仍然比较小和吵杂和还不成熟,但是北京已经明显表示终有一天会与美国潜艇相当。

That applies even to America's most secretive submarine type, the Ohio-class guided missile subs, converted from nuclear ballistic missile carriers. Today these so-called "SSGNs" -- in essence, undersea arsenals -- pack 154 conventional cruise missiles plus special facilities for deploying commandos and drones.

中国甚至要追赶美国最秘密的潜艇,俄亥俄级战略导弹核潜艇,这是由弹道导弹运输舰改装的。今天,这些被称之为SSGNs在本质上就是海面下的武器库,装载了154枚常规巡航导弹再加上可以部署突击队和无人机的专用设施。

Indications in the past year are that China wants a similar sub. "In the next decade, China will likely construct the Type 095 guided-missile attack submarine (SSGN), which may enable a submarine-based land-attack capability," the China report warns. The new sub's ability to strike land targets at long range from the sea would be a first for Beijing.

过去的迹象表明中国想要相似的潜艇。该中国报告警告说“在下个十年,中国将可能建造095型弹道潜艇,这将可能使中国获得潜艇对地攻击的能力。”北京将会第一次得到潜艇由海对地的远程攻击能力。

Near-shore defender

近海防卫

This spring, to great fanfare, the U.S. Navy deployed its first Littoral Combat Ship, a type of near-shore combatant, to Singapore, America's newest Pacific outpost. China is countering with new coastal warships of its own.

今年春天,在亚洲的新据点新加坡,美国海军大张旗鼓地部署了它的第一艘濒海战斗舰,这是一种近海作战舰艇。而中国则提出了自己的海岸型军舰以应对。

In 2012 the PLA Navy launched "at least" six Type 056 shallow-water corvettes armed with guns and missiles -- and might build up to 30 total, according to the report. The corvettes will "augment" China's fleet of 60 brand-new, missile-armed Type 022 fast attack craft "for operations in littoral waters."

据报告说,在2012年解放军海军已经下水了至少6艘056型浅水型轻巡洋舰,该型装备了机枪和导弹,可能会增加到30艘。轻巡洋舰还会增加60艘022型导弹艇

用于海岸水域的军事行动。

The new near-shore combatants support a layered defensive strategy aimed at "engag[ing] adversary surface ships up to 1,000 nautical miles from China’s coast," the report states. With its periphery secure, China can increasingly turn its military attention outward to the surrounding region ... and to the rest of the world.

该报告还指出近岸舰艇支持了逐层防御战略,战略目标则是“与敌人距离中国海岸1000海里以外交战”。随着它的周围得到安全,中国就会把它的军事注意力转向周围地区。。。直至全世界。

铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图

铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图

铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图

铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图

铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图

铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图

铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图

本文内容于 2013/5/23 11:13:58 被weiwanzhou编辑

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