[原创-美国] [美国大西洋月刊]中国做对了什么

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导读:原文标题:What Is China Doing Right? 中国做对了什么? As it turns out, quite a lot. The latest in an ongoing series of discussions with ChinaFile. 结论会相当多,这是一个关于中国的持续讨论系列中最新一篇。 Aly S
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原文标题:What Is China Doing Right?

中国做对了什么??

As it turns out, quite a lot. The latest in an ongoing series of discussions with ChinaFile.

结论会相当多,这是一个关于中国的持续讨论系列中最新一篇。

Aly Song/Reuters

Michael Zhao:

On a recent trip to China, meeting mostly with former colleagues at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, I got a dose of optimism and hope for one aspect of the motherland. In terms of science, or laying down a solid foundation for better science to come, things are going really well in China.

迈克尔.赵

前不久我有一次中国之行,在见到中国科学院的大多数前同事时,对祖国的面貌我感到很乐观,很有希望。从科研方面,或对前沿科学的实质资金投入方面来说,中国的情况确实越来越好。

I was told that salaries for scientists have grown exponentially over the last couple of decades. Funding has reached a level competitive with Western countries and China now has a lot of big science facilities. They're colliding electrons and protons to discover new particles or creating sustained 100 million degree environments to test the nuclear fusion technology many Chinese scientists hope ultimately will solve the problem of an energy shortage for humanity.

我得知,科学家的薪资在最近二十多年里呈指数增长,(科研)款项已经达到了可与西方国家匹敌的程度,现在中国有许多大型科研设施,它们是用来发现新粒子的正负电子对撞机或用来测试核聚变技术的可持续产生1亿度高温环境(的实验设备),一些中国科学家希望这将能最终解决人类的能源短缺问题。

I don't have enough scientific expertise to know whether some of these million dollar projects eventually will deliver the intended results or help solve mankind's many challenges. But the sense of optimism and confidence from this generation of scientists in China is a total facelift from a generation ago, when most of them rode bicycles to their labs, scraped by on meager salaries and dreamed about having computers and facilities of any kind to do their work. Now they dream much bigger dreams -- dreams I don't hear even from American European scientists.

我没有足够的科学知识去了解这些百万美元级的项目最终是否将带来预想的结果或帮助解决人类面临的挑战,但是中国这一代科学家的乐观自信的心态与前一代截然不同,那时候,他们中大多数人骑着自行车去实验室,依靠微薄的薪水勉强度日,梦想有电脑和任何别的设备去帮他们做事,现在他们则向往更大的梦想--这些梦想我甚至没从美国和欧洲科学家那里听说过。

Given China's rapid economic growth over the last three decades, it's no surprise that the country's scientists are working in communities flush with wealth and means. But I'm also impressed to hear many talk about becoming experts on issues not only in China, but around the world. For some time, a lot of Chinese were happy to sort out China's problems alone. Now, things are starting to change. While Chinese scientists may not compete with their counterparts in the U.S. or Europe any time soon, some of them are branching out into studies in Africa and Latin America. So many of these people speak fluent English that pretty soon they will become more prominent on the world stage.

考虑到中国经济在最近三十年的高速增长,我并不惊异于这个国家的科学家在配备有大量资产和手段的条件中工作,但是我也印象深刻的听说一些关于培养专家方面的争论不仅出现在中国,也出现在世界各地。有一段时间,许多中国人乐于单独挑出中国的问题。现在情况开始转变,当中国的科学家不可以与马上与他们的美欧同行竞争时,他们中的一些通过多种途径进入非洲和拉美做研究,所以这些人许多说着流利的英语,不久他们将在世界舞台上有突出的表现。

It's more than the increased appearance of individual Chinese names in journals like Science and Nature -- it's the fact that the Chinese government has been really visionary in its long-time generous investment in science and technology. And Beijing is not really asking for a pretty quarterly earnings report. China's leaders seem to be in it to develop a long-term boost to the country's overall competitiveness that could play out in the national interest for decades to come.

不只是在科学与自然这样的期刊上独立署上中文名的现象在增多--事实是中国政府已经真正有远见的在科技上作长期的慷慨投资,北京并不真的要求有一份季度收益报告,中国领导人似乎为了国家的整体竞争力把它作为一项长期推动力去发展,它会在将来的数十年里贯彻到国家利益中去。

It's probably true that not every dollar put into those expensive instruments will work magic. But China now is in a position where it has the luxury, at least financially, to afford to make mistakes before striking gold.

大体上,不是投入到那些昂贵的仪器中的每个美元都会产生魔力,但是中国现在处于奢侈得起的地位,至少在财力上,能够负担掘到金矿之前的犯的错。

The other thing that I invariably notice every time I go back is that wherever I go in China the infrastructure is being built fast and right. I went to Xishuangbanna, in China's southwestern corner bordering Myanmar, and the airport is a 21st century marvel, though still far smaller than those in Beijing and Shanghai. Meanwhile, back in New York, where I live, when I posted a photograph of the disrepair at the subway stop where I start my daily commute to a Chinese online social network -- noting that my home station's been under construction for two years --someone jokingly replied that it'd be a good idea to import some Chinese workers to get it fixed by tomorrow.

还有一件事是,每次我回去,我总是留意到无论我去到中国哪里,基础设施都建设得又快又好,我去过中国西南边陲与缅甸交界的西双版纳,她的机场是一个21世纪的奇迹,尽管与北京和上海的相比仍然小得多。再回到我生活的纽约,我把我每日通勤的年久失修的地铁站的照片贴到华人在线社交网站上时--写到我家最近的站点这两年都在修建中--有人开玩笑的回复说,有一个好主意是引入一些中国工人,明天就可以修好。

This anecdote may not be a faultless illustration of "what's going right" in China, but I think it's important that Americans understand who their future competitors are. China's population is eager to get ahead and works really hard. They work so hard that every time I go back, I have to meet people on the weekends to get work done.

这些见闻也许不能完全说明中国“做对了什么”,但我认为它对美国明白谁是他们未来的对手是重要的,中国人渴望获得成功并非常努力的做事,他们工作如此努力以致每次我回去时,我都不得不在他们周末做完事情后才与他们会面。

James Fallows:

詹姆斯.法洛斯

Michael Zhao makes a good case about reasons to be impressed with what the Chinese government and a wide range of specific Chinese institutions are doing in the hard sciences. This is all the more impressive for Americans who reflect on the idiotic self-inflicted damage the United States is doing to its scientific establishment through the chaos of our current budgetary process, "the sequester" and all.

迈克尔赵就原因给了一个很好的案例,令人印象深刻的是中国政府和一个大型的中国机构正在从事于自然科学研究,更令人印象深刻的是白痴般的自我破坏的美国人正在让它的科学机构陷入眼下混乱不堪的预算程序之中,“自动缩减”等等。

I bet that other participants in this conversation can think of other specific areas where efforts from North America, Europe, Japan, etc are fitful, under-funded, or tentative, and the Chinese counterparts are by contrast surging ahead. Over the past few years I've followed Chinese and U.S.-based companies as they have pursued renewable energy and other "clean-tech" innovations. The starting level on the American side is generally much higher, and there are important breakthroughs and products coming from U.S. companies and public institutions. Still: there is simply no comparison between the bushy-tailed, can-do, let's-make-this-work, tomorrow-will-be-better spirit that typifies many of the Chinese efforts (even those that are uncoordinated or likely to fail) and the more fatalistic, age-of-limits attitude of many Western institutions.

我打赌这个话题的其他参与者能想到别的特定领域,那些领域里,北美,欧洲,日本等的努力是不稳定的,出现了资金不足或处于试验性质,相比之下中国的同行们正冲到前面。过去几年我有密切注意中国和美国的基于企业的可持续能源和其它“清洁技术”的创新活动,美国这边的起点通常更高,并且有重大的技术突破和产品从美国公司和公共机构面世。对代表许多中国人的努力的“跃跃欲试-能做-让我们做这件事-明天会更好”的精神(甚至那些是不合适的或可能失败的),和许多西方机构中的大量的宿命论和工作年限态度,(两者间)仍然还没有一个比较结论。

It's this difference of tone and attitude, more than any specific contrast in investment patterns or growth percentages, that to me represents "what is going right in China." Like anyone who has been in China recently, I can give you a hundred-item list of serious problems for the country and its institutions. But so far, I've always been able to list of a hundred-plus-one strengths, assets, and ambitions expressed by individuals and organizations there. I was in Beijing again last week, and, in addition to being reminded of all the crises, I was exposed again to a sense of national movement and ambition. That may seem a vague reed on which to rest an assessment of a nation, but I think it's unignorable, it's important, and it's part of why it's foolish to bet against the Chinese system's ability to cope with its challenges.

这是一个风格和态度的差别,不只是在投资方式或增长比例上的具体比较,这向我描绘了“中国做对了什么",就如同一个最近身在中国的人一样,我可以给你一个列举了那个国家及其机构的一百个严重问题的清单,但迄今为止,我总能列出由个人和团体报道的一百加一个优点,资产和抱负,我上周又到了北京,而且额外被提醒了所有的危险,我再次暴露于一个全民性的运动和抱负的感觉之中。看似有一个令国家的评价中止的模糊的簧阀,但我认为它是不可忽视的,它是重要的,而且它部份的表明为什么说赌中国体制的应付挑战的能力是愚蠢的。

Orville Schell:

奥维尔.斯科勒

Reading Jim Fallows' offering on "What's right with China?" left me reflecting with a surprising sense of nostalgia on a dinner that he and I -- along with Evan Osnos from The New Yorker and Ed Wong from The New York Times and our wives -- all had just had a few days ago in Beijing at the restaurant Capital M. It was a lovely balmy, smogless, spring evening and we all sat out on the terrace with other Chinese patrons (now part of China's burgeoning middle class) as the sun set behind the Front Gate and lights came on in Tiananmen Square. From this admittedly privileged vantage point, the city seemed well-ordered and together and China's progress quite stunning and miraculous. This was especially true for my wife, who grew up in Beijing, and for me -- I'd first arrived in the capital in 1975, when Mao still reigned and the Cultural Revolution still raged. All of us at the table were ink-stained wretches who have indulged in our share of fault-finding and cynicism in China. But, looking out over Beijing on this magical evening, we found ourselves suddenly, counter-intuitively, feeling nostalgic about the city. This was especially true of Evan Osnos, who is about to leave China after many years in residence for a new posting in Washington, D.C., which Jim Fallows calls home.

读吉姆.法洛斯提供的“中国做对了什么?”时,我的反应是感到惊讶并使我回想起旧时的一个晚宴,那次有他和我--除了来自纽约人的埃文.奥斯洛斯,还有纽约时报的埃德.王,以及我们的妻子--所有的人正好几天前到了北京,那是在Capital M西餐厅,天气是温暖惬意的,春日的傍晚,暮霭四起,我们与中国合伙人坐在露台上(这个合伙人现在是中国迅速成长的中产阶级的一员),那时,落日被前门遮掩,夕阳铺满了天安门广场,从这个无疑享有特权的优越地点来看,这个城市井然有序,而且中国进步的奇迹令人震撼,这对我的妻子而言尤其真实,她是在北京长大的,而我呢--我第一次来这个首都是在1975年,那时毛仍然当政,文革仍在进行。我们一起用餐人的都不幸被墨水玷染了,热衷于分享对中国吹毛求疵和冷嘲热讽的话题,但是,远望北京这魔幻般的夜色,我们自己突然反直觉地发现了对这个城市的怀旧之情,这对埃文.奥斯洛斯特别真实,他即将要在驻此多年之后离开中国,应詹姆斯.法洛斯之召前往华盛顿的一个新职位任职。

As we ate, we found ourselves discussing what a fickle mistress China can be, how she seduces even as she repels, creating oscillating fields of attraction and repulsion that have left all of us both exhilarated and dizzy, grasping for something solid to hold onto in what often feels like an endlessly spinning room. To say that China's progress has been a study in cognitive dissonance would be an understatement.

当我们用餐时,我们发觉自己在讨论的是中国能作为一个多变的情人,她欲拒还迎,制造引力和斥力电场,令我们所有人振奋和眩晕,就好象一心想在一个不断旋转的房间里紧紧抓住一个固定的东西。鉴于此,中国的发展已经成了一个轻描淡写的认知差距中的研究课题。

So, even while China offers myriad things deserving of criticism, and even though journalists often understand a situation by finding out was does not work, Jim Fallows is absolutely right about the way the better side of the Chinese government's activism deserves note. Its commitment to dealing resolutely with certain kinds of problems, such as clean energy, the building of infrastructure, supporting education, investing in scientific research, etc. have created a spirit -- "a difference of tone and attitude," says Fallows -- that, instead of conveying an air of being hemmed-in by an era of limits, conveys the feel of a society hell-bent on building a more prosperous and stronger country. It also reminds us Americans, who increasingly are being propagandized to believe that governments are the problem not the solution, that there actually can be a constructive role for government.

所以,固然中国有无数值得批评的事,甚至新闻记者们经常懂得的情形是揭露不是工作,吉姆.法洛斯关于中国政府的行动主义值得注意的好的方面的论述还是完全正确的。它恪守承诺坚决地处理某些问题,比如清洁能源,基础设施建设,支持教育事业,投资于科学研究,等等,也已经创造了一种精神--“(容许)声调和态度上的差异”,法洛斯说--那取代了一个限制的时代对于表达的禁锢气氛,传达出一个拼搏的社会在建设一个更繁荣和更强大的国家上的感受。它也提醒我们那些日益被灌输去相信政府是个问题而不是解决之道的美国人,政府实际上能扮演一个建设性角色。

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本文内容于 2013/5/22 16:15:45 被weiwanzhou编辑

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