罗马尼亚第四步兵师简史(附编制)ZT

译者述:我们现在回顾二战的时候,总是将目光放在美日苏德这些大国之上,评论着这些大国的功过是非,评论着这些国家将领的才华,对这些国家所动员的武装力量唏嘘不已,钦佩着那些战斗英雄们的勇气与对国家的忠诚。然而,似乎我们忽略另外一些国家和人,他们是大国利益斗争的附庸,无辜的他们卷入这场不属于他们的战斗,他们战死沙场却被人忘却,他们永远不是勇敢与荣誉的代表,被敌人当做可以任意拿捏的软柿子。这篇关于罗马尼亚第四步兵师的文章虽然不可能让大家完全了解他们,不过大概也能让大家多多关注一下这些二战中的配角。


The Fourth Army fought in the Romanian Campaign of World War I, under the command of General Prezan.


第四师在第一次世界大战的时候参加了罗马尼亚战役,当时这只部队的指挥官是Prezan将军。


The Fourth Army fought on the Axis side as part of the German Army Group B and later it fought on the Allies's side as part of the Soviet Second Ukrainian Front during World War II.


二战期间,第四师作为德军B集团军群的一部分加入轴心国军队作战。战争后期,由于众所周知的原因,罗马尼亚加入了盟国。第四师此时则隶属于苏军乌克兰第二方面军。


From late 1942 to early 1943, the Fourth Army was almost entirely destroyed during the Battle for Stalingrad. The Romanian Third Army suffered a similar fate.


1942年末至1943年初,第四师在斯大林格勒战役中几乎被消灭,全师遭到巨大损失。罗马尼亚第三步兵师也遭受的同样的命运。


In August 1944, the Red Army entered Romania after driving back Army Group South from the region. On August 23, Marshal Ion Antonescu was dismissed by King Michael I, and Romania declared war on Germany and Hungary some days later. The Soviets took control of the oilfields in the Ploieşti area, and the Romanian Army was used to fight German forces on the Eastern Front.


1944年8月,苏联红军击退了盘踞在罗马尼亚的德军南方集团军群,并进入罗马尼亚。8月23日安东内斯库元帅(Marshal Ion Antonescu)被罗马尼亚国王迈克尔(Michael)一世解职,几天后,罗马尼亚向德国和匈牙利宣战。苏军进驻后即控制了罗马尼亚的普洛耶什蒂(Ploieşti)地区的油田,而罗马尼亚军队则用来进攻德军的东线部队。


The Fourth Army became one of the Romanian armies fighting for the Red Army on the Eastern Front. In its campaign from August 1944 to May 1945, the Romanian Army lost some 64,000 men killed. The Fourth Army took part in Soviet offensives, notably at Prague in May 1945, which happened to be the last offensive it took part in World War II.


第四步兵师同样是东线为苏军作战的罗马尼亚军队之一。在1944年8月至1945年5月的一系列战斗中,罗马尼亚军队损失了64000人。第四步兵师随着苏军参与了一系列进攻行动,尤其值得指出的是在1945年5月的布拉格战役,这场战役是第四步兵师参与的最后一场战斗。


In the Prague Offensive, the Fourth Army, together with the Romanian First Army, Polish Second Army, and Soviet Second, and Fourth Ukrainian Fronts. Marshal Ivan Koniev, the commander of the First Ukrainian Front, was the main Soviet commander in the area. Together with Marshal Georgy Zhukov's First Byelorussian Front, Koniev had launched the great attack on April 16 that resulted in the fall of Berlin and Soviet victory on the Eastern Front.


布拉格战役中,第四师与罗马尼亚第一师,波兰第二师,苏军乌克兰第二、第四方面军共同作战。这一地区的主要苏军指挥员是乌克兰第一方面军总司令Ivan Koniev元帅。Koniev联合朱可夫(Zhukov)指挥的白俄罗斯第一方面军,于4月16日发起了一次大规模攻势,为最终攻占柏林以及苏军在东线的最终胜利奠定了坚实了基础。


The offensive started on May 6, a few days before the end of the war. German resistance in the east was now limited to small pockets scattered across Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Austria. The remnants of Army Group Center held the remaining German-controlled areas in the east. In the attack on Prague, German resistance was defeated in the city, and the Soviet, Romanian, and Polish forces entered the city on May 9. Czech partisans had been fighting the Germans there for a few days.


就在战争即将结束的几天前,5月6日,对德军的进攻再一次开始。此时德军在东线的抵抗只限于几个包围圈里,这些包围圈分散在德国,捷克斯诺伐克和奥地利。德军中央集团军群的残余部队龟缩在东线的几个德军控制区内。在对布拉格的进攻中,德军的抵抗在这座城市被彻底瓦解,苏军,罗马尼亚军队和波兰军队在5月9日进驻了布拉格。而捷克的游击队已经在那里与德军作战数天了。


By May 11 and 12, all remaining German pockets of resistance in the east were defeated.


至5月11日、12日,东线所有包围圈内的德军都被消灭。


下面是第四步兵师编制,横线后的是部队驻地,引号内的是指挥官姓名,因为是罗马尼亚文,故未翻译。

4th Infantry Division - HQs Cluj-Napoca

第四步兵师-师部驻地

81st Mechanized Operational Brigade – Bistriţa

第81机械化旅编制

191th Infantry Battalion "Colonel Radu Golescu" – Arad

第191步兵营

811th Infantry Battalion "Dragonii Transilvaniei (Transylvanian Dragons)" - Dej

第811步兵营

812th Infantry Battalion "Şoimii Carpaţilor (Carpathians Hawks)" - Bistriţa

第812步兵营

814th Tank Battalion – Turda

第814装甲营

817th Mixed Artillery Battalion - Prundu Bârgăului

第817混成炮兵营

55th Anti-aircraft Missiles Battalion - Dej

第55防空火炮营

405th Logistics Battalion – Bistriţa

第405后勤营


15th Mechanized Territorial Brigade "Podu Înalt" - Iaşi

第15机械化旅编制

33rd Mechanized Battalion "Alexandru cel Bun" – Botoşani

第33机械化营

151st Infantry Battalion "Războieni" - Iaşi

第151步兵营


61st Mountain Troops Territorial Brigade "Virgil Bădulescu" - Miercurea Ciuc

第61山地旅编制

22nd Mountain Troops Battalion "Cireşoaia"

第22山地营

24th Mountain Troops Battalion - Odorheiu Secuiesc [1]

第24山地营

26th Mountain Troops Battalion "Avram Iancu"

第26山地营

69th Mixed Artillery Regiment - Şimleul Silvanie

第69混成炮兵团

7th Artillery Battalion "General Vasile Danacu"

第7炮兵营

612th Anti-tank Artillery Battalion - Baia Mare

第612反坦克炮营


4th Logistics Brigade – Dej

第四后勤旅编制

43rd Transport Battalion

第43运输营

4th Engineer Battalion – Deva

第4工兵营

52nd Engineer Battalion - Satu Mare

第52工兵营

136th Bridges Battalion - Alba Iulia

第136桥梁营

50th Mixed Anti-aircraft Missile Regiment "Andrei Mureşianu" - Floreşti

第50混成防空营

55th Signal Battalion "Napoca" - Cluj-Napoca

第55通信营

317th Reconnaissance Battalion "Vlădeasa" - Cluj-Napoca

第317侦查营

400th Logistic Support Battalion

第400后勤支援营

498th Paratroopers Battalion – Bacău

第498伞兵营

72nd NBC Battalion - Huşi

第72防化营

202nd NBC Battalion – Sighişoara

第202防化营

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