美国情报机构关于德国伞兵的报告


美国情报机构关于德国伞兵的报告


美国情报机构关于德国伞兵的报告

a. Introduction


A good many American fighting men have said that they would like to get a clearer mental picture of German parachutists—what they look like, how they train, what their standard tactics are, and in general how they do their job.


A common mistake is to imagine that the German parachutist is an ordinary infantryman who, on landing, goes into combat as a guerrilla fighter operating by himself, with help from any fellow-parachutists he may have the luck to meet. Actually, a German parachutist is a thoroughly trained specialist who fights as part of a well-organized unit. The German Army teaches him to believe that his is the most important of all jobs—that he is even more valuable than the aces of the German Air Force. After he has had a long, tough training in a parachutists' school, he is prepared not merely to jump well, but also to fight well. In fact, teamwork is the German parachutist's guiding principle.


b. Training


In choosing men who are to be sent to a parachutists' school, the German Army selects candidates who are young, athletic, quick-witted, and aggressive. Many of them are chosen with regard to certain special abilities (medical, engineering, and so on) which are just as much needed in parachute operations as in any other kind. During the training, emphasis is placed on exact procedures; for instance, a man packs a parachute with special care if he knows that he himself is going to use it. After proper physical conditioning, the candidate works from a jumping tower, practicing landing methods under different conditions. The school also requires, and develops, fearlessness; to illustrate, in a transport plane any sign of hesitation at the command "Jump!" may cost the candidate his membership in a parachute company.


However, parachute jumping is only a small part of the candidate's training, inasmuch as the German Army hopes to make him a useful member of a crack combat organization. He must know how to take part in what is called a "vertical envelopment"—that is, the capture of an area by air-borne troops.[1]


c. Tactics


Airfields and railway and highway junctions are likely to be among the foremost objectives of vertical envelopments. Usually they begin at dawn. To make the parachutist's task less difficult, the Germans send out bombers, dive bombers, and fighters ahead of time to place fire on the defenders' gun positions and to drive gun crews to cover. Special attention is paid to antiaircraft batteries.


Different German tactics may be expected, however, when a parachute unit is dropped on an area which in itself may not interest the Germans, but which may be reasonably near an airfield, a junction, or a communications center. In this case, whatever units are dropped will quickly try to assemble as a coordinated fighting force and then advance to carry out their mission.


The German method of releasing parachutists from transport planes over any given area is so carefully worked out that very little is left to luck. The planes are likely to arrive in flights of three. Arriving over their objectives, they may circle, and then fly at an altitude of 300 to 500 feet across the area where the parachutists are to land. Jumping is carried out in formation. An officer in the leading plane shows a yellow flag[2] two minutes before jumping as a sign to get ready. Half a minute before the jump, he shows a red and white flag. When the planes are over the area he pulls in the red and white flag. This is the signal to jump. If he waves both flags, crossing them back and forth, he is signalling "Don't jump!" At night, signals are given by colored flashlights, in which case red may mean "Get ready," green may mean "Half a minute to go," and white may mean "Jump!"

A leader in each plane gives the signal to jump by sounding an instrument like an automobile horn. Before jumping, the parachutists attach the ring of their parachutes to a wire running along the interior length of the aircraft on the right-hand side. The jump is made through the right-hand door, the ring yanking the cord of the parachute, which opens automatically after a 5-second delay (equal to a drop of about 80 feet). Equipment containers are dropped through the door on the left-hand side of the plane. Each container includes the equipment of three or four men, and is thrown out when, or just after, the men jump. The twelve men and four containers carried by each plane are supposed to be dropped within 9 to 10 seconds. When there is a delay, or when all the parachutists cannot jump while the plane is over the desired area, the plane will swing around in a circle and make a second run across the area.


Jumping at an altitude of 300 to 500 feet, the parachutists will reach the ground within 20 to 30 seconds.


The Germans have found it useful to attach parachutes of different colors to different kinds of loads. For example, a soldier's parachute may be a mixture of green and brown, to make him less conspicuous on the ground and to serve later as camouflage for captured motor vehicles. On the other hand, white parachutes may be used for equipment containers[3] and pink for medical supplies. The Germans are likely to change the meaning of these colors from time to time. Since parachutists can request extra supplies by laying strips of white cloth on the ground in certain formations, there is always a possibility that the opposition will find out the code, and deceive German aircraft into dropping such supplies as ammunition, food, and medicine.


d. Organization of Division


A brief discussion of how the German Flight Division VII—nicknamed the "Parachute Division"—was organized at the time of the capture of Crete will show some of the elements that may be expected in a German parachute attack. In May 1941, Flight Division VII was composed of the following units:


Parachute supply unit


Captured loading lists indicated a standard organization of 144 parachutists per company, carried in twelve aircraft, arranged in four flights of three aircraft each.


Before an attack, a parachute regiment may be reorganized to make its fire power more even. An exchange of platoons may be made between rifle companies and machine-gun and bomb-thrower companies so that, after the reorganization, each company may have, for example, two rifle platoons, a heavy machine-gun platoon, and a platoon of heavy bomb throwers.


e. The Parachutist's "Ten Commandments"


Here is a translation of a document captured from a German parachute trooper who was taken prisoner in Greece. Its title is "The Parachutist's Ten Commandments."


1. You are the elite of the German Army. For you, combat shall be fulfillment. You shall seek it out and train yourself to stand any test.


2. Cultivate true comradeship, for together with your comrades you will triumph or die.


3. Be shy of speech and incorruptible. Men act, women chatter; chatter will bring you to the grave.


4. Calm and caution, vigor and determination, valor and a fanatical offensive spirit will make you superior in attack.


5. In facing the foe, ammunition is the most precious thing. He who shoots uselessly, merely to reassure himself, is a man without guts. He is a weakling and does not deserve the title of parachutist.


6. Never surrender. Your honor lies in Victory or Death.


7. Only with good weapons can you have success. So look after them on the principle—First my weapons, then myself.


8. You must grasp the full meaning of an operation so that, should your leader fall by the way, you can carry it out with coolness and caution.


9. Fight chivalrously against an honest foe; armed irregulars deserve no quarter.


10. With your eyes open, keyed up to top pitch, agile as a greyhound, tough as leather, hard as Krupp steel, you will be the embodiment of a German warrior.


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美国情报机构关于德国伞兵的报告


美国情报机构关于德国伞兵的报告


1.介绍

不错的美国军人也许会希望在自己的脑袋里得到一个清楚的德国伞兵形象---他们长什么样,怎么训练,基本战术是什么……总之,他们究竟是一群什么样的士兵。


一个普遍的错误是认为德国伞兵是那种在陆地以后就像游击队员一样单独行动,偶尔也会和队友---假如运气够好找到的话---一起战斗。实际上德国伞兵是那种经过训练精通团队作战的专家。德军教育他相信自己是所有部队里面最厉害的,连空军的王牌飞行员都无法和他相比。当他们完成漫长而艰苦的训练从伞兵学校毕业之时,他们不仅是跳伞专家,还是作战专家。实际上,团队合作是德国伞兵的核心指导。



2.训练

德国人挑选那些年轻的、强壮的、反应灵敏并且极富攻击性的士兵进入伞兵学校。他们中的许多人都有自己的特长,如医疗、工程等等在空降行动中经常要用到的那些。在训练期间重点落实到每一步细节。举个例子,当一个人知道自己要用那个降落伞包跳伞时,他就会在那个伞包时格外细心。训练者在跳伞塔上跳下时需要模拟很多种落地方式。这所学校也需要培养(学员的)无畏精神。在运输机里,当跳伞信号发出后任何形式的犹豫都会让学员失去成为伞兵的资格。


然而跳伞仅仅是训练的一小部分,德军希望伞兵部队成为精干的作战力量。这些士兵需要理解什么是“立体包围”,即如何用空降部队占领地区。



3.战术

飞机场、铁路和公路交汇处是立体包围的重要目标。为了使任务更加简便,通常这一行动会在黎明进行。在派出伞兵之前德国的轰炸机、俯冲轰炸机和战斗机会对目标地附近的炮兵阵地进行轰炸,目的是为了迫使敌人的炮手隐蔽。对防空炮位的火力覆盖尤为密集。


在一个小时或者更久的空中打击之后,因为在德国的战术并不是一成不变的,所以几件比较重要的工作之可能进行。如果地形合适,滑翔机(每架运输10名士兵)将被投下并着陆,这些部队将在空军的掩护下发动奇袭。


如果着陆成功,滑翔兵将尽可能的杀死或者俘虏敌人的炮手,然后为下一步伞兵的降落作准备。如果没有使用滑翔机,这一切就得由伞兵自己来完成。上面的一切都是德国人根据地面火力及抵抗有多强大来决定的。


即使德军在下降阶段能够使用步枪、冲锋枪和手榴弹,这一时间段仍然是地面火力发挥最理想的阶段因为在空中无法瞄准。举个例子,在克里特岛德军就在降落阶段损失惨重。必须要注意的一点是,如果非要夺取一个机场,德军很可能会牺牲一部分伞兵来转移炮手的注意。德军指挥官关心的是如何夺取一块足够大的场地来让Ju-52运输机(可以装12名伞兵再加正副驾驶员以及观察员,或者装上更重的货物和更少的人)起降。如果德军伞兵无法压制住地面炮手的抵抗,那么从德国人的角度来讲此次行动失败。简而言之,伞兵和滑翔兵是奇袭兵种,必须依靠他们的牺牲来夺取机场的中枢。


当然德国战术并非一成不变,当一支德国空降部队偏离目标,被零散的被空投到一个离某机场、某交汇点或者某通讯中心附近时,他们会迅速重组为战斗部队并且继续完成他们的任务。


德国人在空投伞兵时的方法计算十分精密,几乎不靠运气。每次会议3架运输机为一组飞临目标地点,它们飞临目标上空,在300到500英尺的高度盘旋。跳伞以命令形式发布。领头机上的军官会在跳伞前2分钟举起黄旗,意思是“准备!”;在跳伞前半分钟他会同时举起白旗和红旗;飞临目标上空时他会放下红旗和白棋,意思是“跳伞!”。如果他来回的环绕挥舞红旗和白棋,意思是“不要跳!”在夜间旗语由灯光信号代替,红灯代表“准备”,绿灯代表“还有半分钟”,白灯代表“跳伞”。


注意:旗语和灯光信号经常改变。


每架飞机的跳伞长会用按响一个声音类似汽车喇叭的装置来发布跳伞命令。伞兵们会把自己的环挂在飞机靠右手的那条金属丝上,跳伞从右侧跳出。降落伞环连接着降落伞的开关,会在离开飞机5秒钟之后打开(差不多下降了80英尺后)。装备容器从左手的门投出,每个容器装有3到4人的装备。这些东西在人跳出去以后投出。12名伞兵和4个容器应该在9到10秒之内全部投出,如果没投完,飞机会盘旋一次“把没丢光的丢出去”。跳伞在300到500英尺之间,大约需要20到30秒钟落地。


德国人发现给不同装备用不同颜色的降落伞很有用。比如士兵的降落伞是绿色和棕色混杂的,这样士兵落地后不容易被发现,以后还能拿来做迷彩伪装网。装备容器是白色,医疗设备是粉红色。德国人经常会切换这些降落伞的颜色。德国伞兵经常会在地上拉出一些白色布条引导运输机投下需要的物资,所以敌人总有机会破解这些颜色密码,用来欺骗德国运输机投下补给品,比如彈藥、食物或者药品。



4.伞兵师的编制

通过对在克里特之战时第7飞行师的编制的了解可以推断出德国空降部队的编制。在1941年5月,第7师由以下部队组成:

师部

三个三兵团

伞降机枪营(3连)

伞降反坦克营(3连)

伞降防空营(3连)

伞降炮兵连(分成3组,每组4门火炮)

伞降工程兵营

伞降信号部队

伞降医疗部队

三讲补给部队

缴获的日志显示每个标准伞兵连144人,由12架运输机运输,分成4组(每组3架运输机)行动。

在进攻前,伞兵团会重组自己的单位使火力更加猛烈。在交换部队后一个德国伞兵连可能拥有2个步枪排,1个重机枪排和1个掷弹兵排。



5. 滑翔机和飞机

DFS 230是德国最早也是使用最频繁的滑翔机。这种滑翔机像它的运动滑翔机原型一样狭窄。这是一种由用钢管和帆布制.造的轻型滑翔机,拥有良好的滑翔性能。后期型号加装了一个阻拦伞,有些甚至在机鼻装上了阻推火箭。机轮在飞行中会被丢弃,降落时依靠机腹中间的滑橇。这种飞机可以运载驾驶员和9名士兵。乘员坐在机身中部,最后四个人面向机尾。唯一的门装在机身后部,但是两侧都有用于紧急离机的侧面出口。最后的型号在机顶安装了一挺机枪,由第一位乘员使用。这种滑翔机总共生产了超过2000架,牵引机主要是Ju-52,有时也使用亨克尔He-111。


GO242时作为一种容量比DFS 230大的滑翔机来设计的。首次服役是在1941年夏天,当德国伞兵的空降行动已经到了尾声阶段的时候。这种滑翔机和后来美军的C-119不同,它拥有一个货舱和两个小机身,货物经过机身后部的一扇向上开的活页门装入。每侧有两扇门,另外机舱前面也有一扇门。该种滑翔机由金属管、木板和帆布制.造。载重量最大4吨。可以运输20名以上的士兵或者轻型野战炮以及牵引车。GO 242滑翔性能不佳,脱离牵引后必须迅速着陆。总产量大约1500架,由Ju-52或者He-111来牵引。


梅赛施密特321“巨人”(Gigant)是投入实战的最大的滑翔机。翼展55米,28.15米长,将近6米宽。自重12吨,最大载重量大约20吨。装载工作通过机鼻上两扇巨大的蚌壳式活页门进行。本来是采用3架Me-110来牵引(绰号“三驾马车”),但是这样根本无法操作,而且和听起来一样危险。后来改用He-111-Zwilling,将两架He-111用一个中翼连接起来并且装上5台发动机的改型。超过200架梅赛施密特321被生产出来。大部分后来装上了6台法国产诺-莱茵(Gnone-Rhine)星型引擎,改装成了梅赛施密特323运输机。改装后的机组成员5人,并且削减了载重。滑翔和运输型都非常坚固,但是都很笨重。一中队在给突尼斯的德军运送补给时被盟军战斗机全部击落,另外一群在德军进攻布加勒斯特的时候全部损失。不论是作为滑翔机还是依靠自身动力,它们都需要极长的跑道,后期型号安装了助推火箭供起飞时使用。


3引擎的Ju-52运输机,绰号“容克老姑妈”,是一项会飞的奇迹。在1920年晚期设计。它可以装1000磅货物,13名全副武装的伞兵或者18名普通士兵。尽管它的速度慢,防护差,因为机门和机舱太窄的缘故既没法装载也没法运输重一些的武器或者军用物资,它仍然是一种很不错的运输机。



6. 降落伞

德国降落伞的设计基于意大利的“萨尔瓦多”式降落伞。可以说是各参战国之中最差劲的。德国的RZ系列降落伞(主要是RZ-16和RZ-20)在降落伞和身体之间有一条背带,这样的结果就是伞兵们脸朝下着陆,这就需要一套护膝和护肘,以及一个降落后前滚翻的动作。(在德国空军开始采用英美式的降落伞后这种降落伞就很少再用了)这种着陆方式造成过许多着陆伤害。为了完美着陆,德国伞兵需要以一个笔直向下的姿势跳出机舱。下降阶段即使是对于那些最优秀最敏捷的伞兵来说,要想控制降落伞也是很困难的,跟不用提新兵了。这种姿势同样使德国伞兵在降落时没法携带很多装备,他所能带的除了手槍、手雷,最多就是再加一支冲锋枪。其他的战斗装备都要靠空投容器来提供。这种降落伞开伞时的震动大得吓人,但是低空性能很好,这就可以让伞兵尽快到达地面而不是无助的在天上“晃悠”。和美国式降落伞一样,这种降落伞用4个卡扣连接在背后,在遭到攻击时或者被风吹动时很难脱下来。德国给每名伞兵都配发了双刃匕首以便在紧急情况下能够割断背带。



7. 炮兵及特种装备

德国是最早装备无后坐力炮的国家之一,最早的版本是在克里特出现的75mm无后坐力炮,重321磅,空投时拆成数个部分用降落伞降落。后来又出现了105mm(855磅)无后坐力炮。德国人也使用两种锥膛反坦克炮,28mm和42mm。它们的后坐力小,但是对钨的缺乏导致这两种武器在43年就退出战争。28mm炮仅重260磅。


最成功的伞兵火炮也许是81mm K(Kurz,短)迫击炮,截短的炮管并没有影响它的威力。有些工兵部队使用46型一次性火焰喷射器(Einstossflammenwerfer 46),后来很多移交给党卫军使用。


德国人从来都没有找到一种可以和美军吉普相媲美的车辆来空投。他们曾经使用空降的750CC宝马摩托车(加装了牵引钩)来牵引火炮,但是那种车辆的引擎功率小,而且牵引性能不好。有时也会使用Kettenrad半履带摩托车(1500CC),尽管牵引性能不错,但是如何把这种车辆装上或者卸下Ju-52运输机仍然是一个老大难。



8. 补给

因为糟糕的降落伞设计是德国伞兵除了手榴弹和手槍几乎没法携带武器,所以武器和装备容器就十分重要。一个40个人的伞兵加强排需要不少于14个容器,仅仅来提供基本的武器彈藥供给。容器会被装在机翼下或者炸彈舱里。每个容器可以装200磅货物,最大容量260磅。一侧有防撞垫,另一侧是降落伞,有些还在底部装上了一对小轮子,还附上牵引把手,这样在着陆后就可以移动。伞兵着陆后的一堆重要任务之一就是找到他们的容器,不同的部队会采用不同的颜色和标记来表明自己的装备箱。


在突击任务中德国伞兵得到的补给是脱水黄油和肉、“代用”咖啡以及压缩饼干。在作战中他们经常可以得到兰姆酒或者白兰地配给。他们也配发浓缩葡萄糖片。伞降猎兵装备标准的德国陆军“易斯比特”(Esbit)野战炊具。这一一种液体燃料折叠式炊具,体积比香烟盒略大,打开以后就可以用来加热,在关上时炉子会密封液体燃料。


在必要的时候也会发给伞兵安非他明来延长他们的警戒时间。这种药品有两个坏处,一是在药力退去后士兵会更加疲倦,二是它会让士兵在战斗状态下感到口渴(而在战斗状态下喝水是很困难的)


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德国伞兵的“十诫”

这是一份在希腊作战时从德国伞兵手中缴获来的文件。标题是《德国伞兵的十诫〉。

1. 你是德军精锐,对于你来说战斗就应该是一件惬意的事情。你必须找到方法,训练自己抵抗一切困难。

2.培养牢不可破的同志精神,与你的同伴一起迎接胜利或者毁灭。

3.对聊天和不良习惯感到耻辱。男人行动,女人聊天,闲扯淡会把你送进坟墓。

4. 冷静而且谨慎,强壮而且坚定,英勇和好战精神将让你在战斗中无往不利。

5.在面对敌人的时候,彈藥是最宝贵的。那些拼命射击来恢复自己的自信心的蠢货根本就不配作为伞兵。

6.永远不要投降,要么荣誉的胜利,要么荣誉的死去。

7. 好的武器可以帮助你赢得胜利,所以请好好的照料它们。第一是武器,第二是自己。

8. 全面理解你的任务,这样如果你的指挥官死在半路上,你也能冷静的完成任务。

9. 带着骑士精神与敌人作战,对于背后放黑枪的人,不要做任何怜悯。

10.睁着眼睛,保持兴奋,像猎犬一样灵敏,像皮革一样坚韧,像克虏伯钢铁一样坚强,你们是日耳曼战士的化身。


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战术篇补:德国伞兵如何为滑翔机清理场地


介绍


德国人很清楚伞兵需要得到及时地得到增援、物资、彈藥以及配给来取得胜利,所以德国人建立了一支特别的伞兵,他们的任务就是在着陆后的首要任务就是为后续的滑翔机开辟降落场地。首批降落的将是协助开辟空降场的部队,第二批是无法空投的物资。在此之后德国人会建立一个有组织的补给系统,包括对整个场地的保护以及有序的安排部队和物资降落的顺序。


对合适场地的侦查


即使德国伞兵一落地就需要投入战斗,这些特定的伞兵也会对交战区域及附近进行一系列侦查以寻找合适的场地。德国人喜欢附近有路通向交战部队的降落场。值得注意的是选择的降落场长度至少是“15对一”,即降落场的长度至少是附近障碍物高度的15倍。每个空降团至少拥有一个降落场,每个降落场2条滑道。对于德国人来说理想的空降场地是滑翔机可以不管风向从任何一个方向降落。


德国人不喜欢以下几种降落场地:岩石地表,即使是平地;多石的场地,并且岩石深度达到2英尺以上(难以移动);沼泽地或者灌木丛;植被浓密或有排水沟、石墙、树篱、电线杆等障碍物的场地。这些则是德国人最喜欢的降落场:软度合适的草地;长有很高的草即使是一点植被的平地;农田(即使刚刚犁过),玉米地(清理起来十分方便),还有沙地(有点鹅卵石也不要紧)。除了这些以外,风向也会影响到降落场的选择。


建立着陆场


不仅仅是降落滑道,连滑道周围65英尺之内所有的障碍物都需要被移除。高低不平的土地会被平整,通常情况下所有减少碰撞着陆的可能都会尽量去完成,如果时间紧迫或者场地实在难以清理,德军至少会清理出1/3以上的场地。这段距离可以减小滑翔机的速度,使碰撞着陆的严重后果尽量减小。在滑道尽头会设有专门的停机坪,停机坪必须不能影响到滑道。降落后的滑翔机就排列好停在那里,清理场地时的植物会用来作为这些滑翔机的伪装。降落场中间会用识别条醒目的标出以供航空观察,必要时候会用识别条划出巨大的“T”来表示风向,有时也会使用烟。


美国情报机构关于德国伞兵的报告




美国情报机构关于德国伞兵的报告





美国情报机构关于德国伞兵的报告


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