原来英格兰长弓手的祖宗是诺曼人

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导读:  一提到长弓,哦,那当然是阿金库尔,当然是克蕾西,无敌的英国长弓,传奇的英长,还有老爱,还有愚笨的法国佬,百年战争,黑太子。。。。   稍微广博一些的人还知道,英国长弓起源自威尔士,是的,这些都正确,但这不够   一提到诺曼武士你会想到什么,哦,那当然是维京战船,维京剑,诺曼骑士,那些纵横在北海到地中海的传奇人物。。。。。。   但是,这也不够,在这些光辉灿烂的传奇后面,隐藏着一些默默无名的小人物,他们既不像后来的英国长弓手那样盛名远扬也不如手拿剑盾身披重甲的维京英雄那样威名赫赫,他们是

一提到长弓,哦,那当然是阿金库尔,当然是克蕾西,无敌的英国长弓,传奇的英长,还有老爱,还有愚笨的法国佬,百年战争,黑太子。。。。


稍微广博一些的人还知道,英国长弓起源自威尔士,是的,这些都正确,但这不够


一提到诺曼武士你会想到什么,哦,那当然是维京战船,维京剑,诺曼骑士,那些纵横在北海到地中海的传奇人物。。。。。。


但是,这也不够,在这些光辉灿烂的传奇后面,隐藏着一些默默无名的小人物,他们既不像后来的英国长弓手那样盛名远扬也不如手拿剑盾身披重甲的维京英雄那样威名赫赫,他们是一群小人物,他们的装备普片简陋,但是他们所扮演的角色却是如此重要,他们是胜利不可或缺的组成元素,他们建立了的长弓传统也深刻影响了英国乃至欧洲之后的军事制度。。。



进入主题前先发一张图


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局部放大一下,我们可以清晰的看到一名手持弓箭,骑于马上的骑射手


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这幅图片描述的是如下事件


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北欧长弓


长弓起源于西北部欧洲,至少约有数千年历史,北欧弓的主要实物是Nydam Bow和Hedeby Bow.分别是公元200~300年,和公元900~1000年。


这些北欧弓和Mary Rose弓有很强的可比性。事实上从欧洲的出土实物来看,紫杉长弓的形制基本上5000年前就已经确定了。在这之后D字形截面,1.1的截面宽高比是比较普遍的。如果说差异的话,北欧弓会出现一些截面宽高比为1.3的,而Mary Rose弓当中则没有。另外一个显著差异就是Nydam弓的拉力都会比较小。从尺寸来看,Nydam弓的拉力应该不超过70磅。而到更晚期的Hedeby,从尺寸来看,弓的拉力可以达到100磅。如果的确是这样的话,体现出了弓的拉力标准在不断提高的趋势。这种趋势很可能是源于防护的不断改善。


北欧的Hedeby长弓


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现代复原物


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Bows were used in nautical battles. Once engaged, men on opposing ships fired arrows and threw missiles from one ship to the other, attempting to clear the decks of men so that the ship could be taken. Chapters 106-111 of Ólafs saga Tryggvasonar describes the sea battle at Svölðr in the year 1000, in which King Ólafr was killed.


弓箭被用于海上作战,北欧战士在海战中,会互相向对方的舰船射击,以期望击干掉甲板上的人员。萨迦史诗提到了公元1000年的Svölðr海战,奥拉夫国王牺牲于那一战


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King Ólafr was on board his ship, Örmurinn langi (The Long Serpent), shown to the right in a 19th century painting by Sinding. The saga says the king shot most often with his bow, but sometimes threw spears.


图上描绘的是奥拉夫国王在他的船上,龙船,萨迦史诗写道国王经常使用他的弓,但有时也投掷长矛


With him was Einar, described as the best shot anywhere. Einar fired two close shots at Earl Eiríkr, before Eiríks bowman, Finn, fired an arrow that hit Einar's bow. With the next shot, Einar's bow broke. King Olaf asked, "What cracked with such a loud noise?"


在他身边的事Einar,无论在哪里,他都被描绘为最出色的射手,Einar向埃里克伯爵射出了两箭,都是近失箭,埃里克的弓手,Finn向Einar射出了一箭,命中了Einar的弓。再要射击时,Einar的弓坏了,奥拉夫国王问道“为何破裂声这么响?”


Einar replied, "Norway out of your hands, sire."


Einar答道“挪威已经不再您的控制之下了,陛下”



As with other weapons, bows were used to threaten. Before the battle at Svölðr, Úlfr, one of King Ólaf's men on board Örmurinn langi, questioned the king's command, implying cowardice on the part of the king. Ólafr fitted an arrow to the bow in his hand and aimed it at Úlfr, who said, "Shoot in another direction, king, where the need is greater."


与其他的武器相比,弓箭是一种投掷武器。在Svölðr海战前,Úlf,奥拉夫国王龙船上的一名船员,被问到对于国王发布的的命令的看法,Úlf说国王胆小懦弱铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图


,气得奥拉夫拿起弓箭铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图


,径直向Úlf射了一箭,命中了他的头部。Úlf临死前说---------------“国王,向那个方向射吧,那里更需要这一箭”铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图



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A reproduction bow is shown to the left.


Bows were made from the wood of a yew, ash, or elm. Typically, they were 1.6 to 2m (60 to 80 in) long. A complete bow found at Hedeby was made of yew and was 192cm long.


长弓由紫杉,白蜡和榆木制成,典型的北欧长弓大约1.6-2米长,在Hedeby出土的一具完整的北欧长弓约为192cm


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中2全战里有北欧弓箭手


These men have inherited a fine Viking tradition of bow-armed warriors. Drawn from the ranks of free farmers, they are able to afford some light protection, and a sword for close combat, for which they have far more appetite than other light archers. On the other hand, their bows are weak and of a simple construction due to the cold climate.


这些弓箭兵体内充满着强悍的维京血脉,作战极为骁勇。他们泰半出身自耕农阶层,因此可出资购置轻型盔甲和长剑,以备近身搏杀,自身亦对这种血肉横飞的作战方式情有独钟。但另一方面,寒冷气候令他们只能使用单体弓,故而远程杀伤威力较弱。

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Arrow heads were made in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some historic arrowheads from the 10th century found in Norway are shown in the sketch to the left. The shortest is 12cm (5in) long. Arrowheads are not commonly found in the graves of warriors, since bows were mainly used for hunting.


箭头的尺寸是多种多样的,一些发现的挪威出土的十世纪箭头最短也有12厘米。箭头不仅是仅仅用来作战,并且也用于狩猎


In Iceland, arrowheads have been found in only two pagan graves from the Viking age, but these examples are severely eroded. Arrowheads in good condition were found at several Icelandic house sites dating from the Viking age, and they range in length from 10-15cm (4-6in).


在冰岛,在两个维京时代的异教徒墓穴中发现了大量陪葬的箭头,但这些样本已经被严重腐蚀。但是,很多在冰岛人的房子下找到的维京时代的箭头却保持良好,他们的长度范围为10-15厘米


Arrowheads had a tang which was driven into a hole in the shaft and secured with cordage and pitch.


Although evidence is very slight, shafts were probably 70 to 80cm (28-32in) long, and perhaps 10mm (3/8in) in diameter. Shafts were probably made out of hardwood, in order to hold the tang.


箭头有一个箭头柄以被安装进箭杆的空心处并且被安全的。。。(后面不知如何翻译,请高人)


尽管证据不多,箭杆大约长70-80米,直径约为10毫米,箭杆由硬木制成,目的是为了支撑箭头柄


The estimated draw weight of one 10th century bow is 90lbs (40kgf), and the effective range of this weapon was about 200m (650ft).


据估计10世纪的弓箭磅数为90磅,拉力40千克,有效射程200米


However, medieval Icelandic law gives a different estimate. The distance of the flight of an arrow, ördrag (bowshot) was a unit of measure commonly used in Icelandic law. For example, Grágás, the medieval Icelandic law book, requires that the court empowered to confiscate an outlaw's property be held within a bowshot of the outlaw's home (K 62). A later addition to Grágás defines the bowshot to be two hundred faðmar (about 480m).


可以根据中世纪冰岛法律估计一枚箭头的有效战斗距离,在冰岛,弓箭射程测量法是法律的一部分。比如,Grágás,中世纪冰岛的法律书记载法庭可以被授权没收一个歹徒的财产,即以歹徒的房子为中心,弓箭射程内的所有财产。稍后Grágás的附加条款又对射程下了定义---------弓箭的射程指的是200faðmar,480米的距离



It seems likely that archers used bows with draw weights to fit their capabilities, so there must have been some variation in the draw weights of bows. After Einar's bow was broken at the battle at Svölðr, the king threw him his own bow, telling Einar to continue to shoot. Einar fitted an arrow, and unaccustomed to the king's light bow, drew the head behind the bow. "Too weak, too weak is the king's bow." He threw the bow aside and took up his sword and shield.


弓箭手的能力与弓箭的拉力是要匹配的,一名弓箭手必须使用与自己相称的弓箭,故那时的弓箭一定有很多不同的拉力,这里有个故事,在Svölðr战役中,Einar的弓箭坏了后,国王给了他一些自己的弓,Einar试用了以后说---------“太轻,太轻,国王的弓太轻”于是他把弓放在一边,拿起了战剑与盾牌



“太轻,太轻,国王的弓太轻”


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这是一个英国博物馆里的法兰克城堡的石雕描绘的是几个挪威男子为了保卫家园与一帮子入侵者作战的场景,注意盾牌上的箭头



“维京人创造了凶猛的重型步兵。其著名之处在于他们用双手使用柄长6英尺的重斧,只要一击便可砍透对手的盾牌和头盔。他们每人还都携带一面盾牌、一把短剑、一支标枪,尽管通常进行近战,但都携带一张硬弓,而且全是使用弓箭的行家里手。


即使他们具有骑兵的能力,维京人也喜欢下马战斗。骑兵在防御方面是软弱的,而且只有在与进攻者的力量相当时才能实施反冲击。但是,下马战斗,重型骑兵就变为重型步兵。早先纳尔塞斯曾在两种场合以这种方法增强他的重型步兵,而且法兰克人也曾在图尔运用这种部署对付MSL。因此,维京人下马,使其乘马的步兵变为重型步兵,从而使其与重型骑兵相比,仍具有防御的优越性。为了保护自己,维京人实施防御总是要选择一个有利阵地,比如小山上或溪流后,甚至是村庄或教堂里。法兰克人无法使用弓箭术,因为他们在发展其弓箭手方面是失败的,而维京人从任何方面来说却都是优秀的弓箭手。”


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描绘了黑斯廷斯战役的贝叶挂毯,上面清楚的描绘了参战的诺曼长弓手


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黑丝汀斯的诺曼长弓手们,在这场战役,与诺曼骑士相比,他们并不起眼,但他们却是这场胜利最不可或缺的一个部分


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诺曼长弓手铁血网提醒您:点击查看大图



黑丝汀斯战役中,诺曼军队不但拥有长弓兵,同样也配备了十字弩手,与长弓手相互配合


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29楼贝叶挂毯上的盎格鲁萨克森军队的盾牌上插满了箭头,一部分来源于诺曼长弓手,一部分则由诺曼十字弩手造成


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在箭头处点火也是很常见的


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本文内容于 2011/3/4 11:40:55 被小编a9编辑

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