[原创]曳光弹,中俄与北约的不同之处。

armkean 收藏 61 58195
导读:看到很多人在谈论德国MG43时,把中俄的曳光弹的标注用于北约弹药标注,还有中俄与北约曳光弹还有不少不同。查了些资料翻译的给大家学习下。

首先 来说说曳光弹药的作用。


Tracer ammunition (tracers) are special bullets that are modified to accept a small pyrotechnic charge in their base. Ignited upon firing, the composition burns very brightly, making the projectile visible to the naked eye. This enables the shooter to follow the bullet trajectory relative to the target in order to make corrections to his or her aim.


When used, US tracers are usually loaded as every fifth round in machine gun belts, referred to as four-to-one tracer. Platoon and squad leaders will sometimes load their magazines entirely with tracers to mark targets for their soldiers to fire on. Tracers are also sometimes placed two or three rounds from the bottom of magazines to alert the shooter that his or her weapon is almost empty

曳光弹是一种特殊子弹,它主要是在子弹底部进行了技术改进,使得在开火后,主要成分燃烧的非常亮以使发射器可以被肉眼看到。这样射手可以看到子弹的弹道指示的相关目标,用来修正对于射击目标的弹道。


美国一般在机枪弹带上是每五发有一发曳光弹。班排长有时候自己弹夹里会全部装曳光弹,这样用来给自己的士兵指示射击目标。曳光弹有时候也在弹夹底部连续装填2到3发,用来提醒射手自己的弹夹快空了。


其次,美国北约和中俄在弹药成分上有不同,发光颜色也不同


In US and NATO standard ammunition, this is usually a mixture of strontium compounds (nitrate, peroxide,...) and a metal fuel such as magnesium. This yields a bright red light. Russian and Chinese tracer ammunition generates red or green light using barium salts. It is not true that they use only green tracers even if identified by green bullet tips. Some modern designs use compositions that produce little to no visible light and radiate mainly in infrared, being visible only on night vision equipment.[4]


美国北约标准弹药中,曳光弹主要构成为锶复合物和一种金属燃料混合构成,产生亮红光。中国和俄罗斯的曳光弹药成分主要钡盐而产生红或者绿光。认为中俄仅仅使用绿光曳光弹即使是有绿色弹头标识,这个是错误的。一些现代化的设计中使用产生了微光甚至产生主要在红外区的不可见光和辐射的成分,只能在夜视器材下才能看到。


然后,曳光弹的分类

There are three types of tracers: bright tracer, subdued tracer and dim tracer. Bright tracers are the standard type, which start burning immediately after exiting the muzzle. A disadvantage of bright tracers is that they give away the shooter's location to the enemy; as a military adage puts it, "tracers work both ways". Bright tracers can also overwhelm night-vision devices, rendering them useless. Subdued tracers burn at full brightness after a hundred or more yards to avoid giving away the gunner's position. Dim tracers burn very dimly but are clearly visible through night-vision equipment.

现在有三种曳光弹,亮曳光弹、弱光曳光弹和暗曳光弹。亮曳光弹就是现在使用的标准型,一处枪口就开始燃烧,缺点是亮曳光弹也给敌人指示了射手的位置(其他省略了)弱曳光弹是在弹药射出100多米后开始照亮可以避免暴露射手位置。暗曳光弹光亮非常弱,必须使用夜视装备才能看到。



最后是北约标准曳光弹药的标注情况


曳光弹,中俄与北约的不同之处。

上图可以看到曳光弹的标注颜色


The M196 tracer cartridge (55-grain bullet) is a training round for 5.56mm NATO weapons. It has a red tip and is designed to trace out to 500 yards.


The M856 tracer cartridge (63.7-grain bullet) is used in the M16A2/3/4, M4-series, and M249 weapons (among other 5.56mm NATO weapons). This round is designed to trace out to 875 yards and has a red tip (orange when linked 4 to 1 with the M249).


The M25 is a 30.06 tracer cartridge consisting of a 145 gr bullet with 50 grains of IMR 4895 powder. Orange tip.


The M62 is a 7.62x51mm NATO tracer consisting of a 142 gr bullet with 46 grains of WC 846 powder. Orange tip.


The M276 is a dim tracer that uses composition R 440, which is barium peroxide, strontium peroxide, calcium resonate, and magnesium carbonate. Violet tip.



从以上美军现在使用的曳光弹标注来看,大部分美军的曳光弹使用的是红色或者橘红色。绿色tip的我还没找到标注意思。从这看出貌似绿色是曳光弹 红色是燃烧弹也就仅仅适用于中俄系的弹药标准。








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