Contract negotiations indicate Japanese move towards JSF
Japan is negotiating a contract with the United States that will provide Tokyo with sensitive information about the systems and performance of the F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) as it seeks to evaluate the aircraft in a bid to procure a next-generation fighter (FX) for the Japan Air Self-Defense Force.
A source at the Japanese Ministry of Defence (MoD) told Jane's on 6 October that the contract is expected to be signed shortly. Although the value of the deal is not significant (it is understood by Jane's to be worth around USD11 million), the development signals a clear move by Japan towards the JSF - and away from the F-22 Raptor - as a platform to meet its FX requirement.
The source said: "Regarding the selection of the FX, the MoD is studying the performance of various aircraft. ... As part of this process, the MoD has been requesting the US government to provide us with information on fifth-generation fighters."
The source stressed, however, that the "contract for provision of information" did not mean that it had already selected the JSF.
Other aircraft on Japan's FX shortlist include Dassault's Rafale, Eurofighter's Typhoon, Boeing's F/A-18E/F and F-15FX, and Lockheed Martin's F-22
2009 10 -7
日本政府国防部在10月6月日披露给简氏周刊， 该合同预计在短期内签署。 尽管该合同并不会起到关键性的作用，（根据简氏估计该合同价值1100万）但是该合同证明了日本将会放弃采购F-22转向JSF的倾向。
其他日本有可能采购的下一代FX战斗机还包括： 法国的阵风 欧洲的台风 波音的 F/A-18E/FX 和 洛克希德马丁的F-22
India seeks more Sukhois to keep up with allies
The Indian Air Force (IAF) is seeking 50 additional Russian Sukhoi Su-30MKI multi-role fighters to counter the burgeoning air combat fleets of close allies but neighbouring nuclear rivals Pakistan and China.
Air Chief Marshal P V Naik recently declared that the IAF was "interested" in acquiring the extra Su-30MKIs, which would form the mainstay of India's fighter fleet for the foreseeable future to further enhance its combat potential.
This was in addition to the 238 twin-seat Su-30 MKIs already procured from Russia for USD8.5 billion in three separate deals since the mid-1990s, of which around 105 have so far been inducted.
Of the 238 Su-30MKIs, 140 are being built locally under licence by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited in Bangalore, southern India, in a programme scheduled for completion by 2015.
"We need to develop certain capabilities which are required, or will be required in the future, in tune with India's aspirations," ACM Naik said in New Delhi earlier this month, ahead of the IAF's 77th birthday on 8 October.
The IAF has long maintained that it seeks to project power and develop strategic reach stretching from the Strait of Hormuz near the Persian Gulf to the Malacca Strait in the South China Sea, which India has deemed to be its primary area of geopolitical interest.
A few days earlier ACM Naik had bemoaned that the IAF's fighter strength was "inadequate" – a mere one third the size of China's. The force is therefore opting for more acquisitions
上将Nalk 最近宣布 印度空军对追加采购更多Su-30MKI非常有兴趣，Su-30MKI被认为会成为未来空战中印度空军的主力，将会大大提高空军的作战能力
South Korea's fighter requirements come to the fore
By Siva Govindasamy
South Korea's fighter requirements come to the fore
By Siva Govindasamy
There is a resurgence in interest in South Korea's fighter aircraft requirements, with the east Asian country deciding on a variety of aircraft as part of an ongoing modernisation of its air force's capabilities.
The choices represent a mix of imported and indigenous solutions, with the country trying to find a way to match its operational requirements with a desire to promote the local industry, mainly state-owned Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI).
South Korea has maintained three levels of fighters - low, medium and high - as part of its operational capability. At the low level are Northrop F-5s, at the medium level McDonnell Douglas F-4s, and Lockheed Martin F-16s and Boeing F-15Ks at the high level. Replacements are being considered at all levels.
For the low-level requirement, the government finally awarded 400 billion won ($306 million) to KAI to develop a prototype of a light attack version of its T-50 advanced jet trainer, with a production contract likely to be awarded after the aircraft has been tested by the nation's air force.
"Under the contract, KAI will upgrade four T-50s to the F/A-50 standard and deliver them to the air force by 2012. KAI expects the air force to order around 60 F/A-50s for delivery from 2013 to replace its F-5s, and eventually buy up to 150 of the type," says the company.
This follows years of intense efforts by KAI to get financial support for the F/A-50's development and keep its T-50 production line open beyond 2012, when the last South Korean aircraft under contract are delivered. Its air force has ordered 82 T-50s, including 50 advanced jet trainers, 22 armed A-50s and 10 for its aerobatics display team. The service could order another 70 trainer and weaponised variants, say sources, and the T-50 is in contention in several international tenders.
Foreign input has been crucial to the T-50, which was developed with extensive help from Lockheed. The F/A-50 is tagged as an indigenous aircraft, but it will also depend on foreign suppliers to a large extent. KAI issued tenders in 2008 to suppliers of radar warning receivers, precision-guided bombs, countermeasures dispensers, advanced tactical datalinks and weapons management systems for the F/A-50.
Known armaments will include bombs equipped with Boeing Joint Direct Attack Munition guidance kits and Raytheon's AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missile.
Israel's Elisra has also been selected to supply electronic warfare equipment for the F/A-50, under an initial contract worth $7 million. Elisra will develop and produce prototype equipment to be supplied to KAI over the course of the next two years.
In September, the South Korean government reaffirmed its support for the F/A-50's development by increasing the research and development funding for projects such as these to 6.1% of its total 2010 defence budget, or 1.7 trillion won, up from 5.5% this year.
The KF-X programme, which aims to develop a successor to the F-4s, however, suffered a setback. The Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA), South Korea's military procurement agency, had hoped to secure funding to begin developing the KF-X in 2010. But this has been delayed as the country aims to increase spending on welfare programmes and measures that ensure that economic growth continues in 2010.
Studies will continue on the viability of the KF-X programme, especially since its focus appears to have shifted in the last year. Initially, the plan was to develop a fifth generation stealth fighter, something that is in between the Dassault Rafale or Eurofighter Typhoon and the Lockheed F-35 in terms of capability.
Earlier this year, however, the Weapon Systems Concept Development and Application Research Center at Konkuk University, which had been looking into the feasibility of the KF-X programme, recommended that it instead focus on developing an aircraft similar to the F-16. A feasibility study was due in the fourth quarter of 2009 and a decision by the national defence ministry expected by year-end. That now looks to be delayed.
According to the preliminary specifications, the aircraft is to have basic stealth characteristics and a domestically built active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar. It would have a much larger combat radius than the F-16, include an electronic warfare suite, incorporate an infrared search-and-track system, and datalink systems fit for a network-centric environment.
It has not been decided if it would be a single-engined or twin-engined aircraft, but it is projected to have 50,000lb of thrust (220kN). Super-velocity intercept and supercruise capabilities are also required.
© US Air Force
Seoul also hopes to engage foreign aircraft manufacturers significantly in the programme. The Konkuk centre's conclusion was that the "self-development of the aircraft is possible" if there is "joint development of core technology" and sufficient "technology transfer from abroad". To this end, the centre earlier this year asked Boeing, Eurofighter, Lockheed and Saab for their recommendations about the feasibility of the plans, as well as for suggestions on how they could help.
Boeing, which has sold 60 F-15Ks to South Korea and has been the most successful defence contractor in the country in recent years, is keen to get involved in the programme.
"We have been working with the Korean government since 2007 on several scenarios and ways to collaborate on the KF-X. They will take all of the input and make a decision within the next 12 months," says Joe Song, Asia Pacific vice-president for international business development at Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. "The KF-X is complementary to what we offer. One of the benefits is that they know our aircraft and love them."
One problem is cost. It is estimated that at least $10 billion could be spent on the programme, with the price-tag going up even more once production begins and increasingly dependent on how many aircraft are finally ordered. That has led to critics saying that the project is not feasible, an idea that may gain currency as the government looks to save money in the economic crisis.
He points out that South Korea will be better served by going for an off-the-shelf solution such as the Boeing F/A-18E/F, Eurofighter Typhoon and the latest version of the F-15, the Silent Eagle. "These can provide much of the capability that South Korea requires. Think about it. It will take the Koreans more than 10 years to indigenously develop an aircraft that is already in existence. It won't be unrealistic to think that t he aircraft will be dated by the time it comes out. Without a doubt, an off-the-shelf purchase will meet the operational requirements at a much lower cost."
That is how the third phase of the South Korean fighter requirement - a desire to acquire fifth-generation stealth fighters - will be met. There was some initial interest in the Lockheed F-22 from Seoul, which said that the aircraft will be a deterrent against a ballistic missile threat against North Korea.
The USA has told South Korea (as it has told Australia, Israel and Japan - the other countries interested in the fighter) that the F-22 is not available for export. Seoul's interest appears to have cooled, as a result. However, if the intense pressure from Japan to get Washington to allow the development of an export model of the F-22 bears fruit, South Korea can be expected to make another push for the F-22.
Nonetheless, the more likely situation is that it will make a move towards the F-35 in the coming years. The DAPA received a briefing on the fighter earlier this year, and the third stage of its F-X programme is likely to begin around 2012 with the F-35 as the main contender for that 60-aircraft requirement.
The F-35 is being pushed by Washington as the main fighter to be exported by the country to replace existing third- and fourth-generation aircraft. South Korea would follow the likes of Singapore, which also has F-16s and F-15s and will eventually replace them with the JSF.
But if there are any delays in the F-35, Boeing stands ready to offer its F-15SE as an alternative. Indeed, the Silent Eagle was proposed for customers such as South Korea, which would like to have a transition to aircraft that are more capable than their existing fourth-generation fighters, but are not sure about the F-35 or its availability.
Industry sources indicate that Seoul could divide the third phase of the contract, going for another 20 F-15s first and then ordering the F-35 when it is ready.
"The F-15SE is very well positioned to win the contract. The issue of fifth generation is not just in South Korea, it is everywhere. Stealth is very sexy, fifth generation is very sexy. But we offer a twin-engined AESA-capable medium multi-role combat aircraft," says Song.
很长。。选部分关键的翻译了 有情趣的朋友自己慢慢看吧 讲的。。。非常详细
韩国空军正在进行新一轮的空军更新换代计划 计划包括引进与自行建造 最终目的在于增强本国航空工业实力
韩国空军拥有3个级别的战斗机： 低 中 高 低级别主要由F-5 中级别由F-4 高级别由洛克希德的F-16和波音的F-15K组成 换代计划将会全面的在3个级别进行
低级别替换：3亿6百万美金投资于 KAI （应该是韩国的公司）用于发展T-50（教练机）改装成轻型攻击机
在2012年 Kai将会完成4架T-50改装F/A-50 韩国空军估计会买进60架F/A-50从2013起，来替换他的F-5， 最终形成150架该类型的机群 进口的依赖起了很大作用 F/A-50的雷达 火控 导航 制导炸弹 全部需要进口 KAI于2008年已经发出了国际投标 以色列早期从中获得了巨大的利润
汉城的官员指出 对于高级别的替换 可以考虑采购现在仍在服役中的F/A-18E/F 欧洲的台风 和F-15的最新系列 和 Silent Eagle沉默鹰 因为他承认韩国本国工业至少需要10年时间来研究发展出现在已经在市场上服役的飞机 所以直接对外采购是最好的选择
美国已经对韩国表示（如同对日本 澳大利亚 以色列和其他国家）F-22是不会出口的。 但是如果日本持续向美国施压，坚持美国发展F-22的出口版本，那么韩国也有机会向美国购买出口版本。
（。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。看来日本和韩国装备F-35已经是迟早的事情了 。。。我们的F-14。。。。压力压力。。 不过美国不卖F-22是为什么。按照一贯政策应该不会把最先进的东西卖出去的啊 不知道大家有什么想法。。或者是在等我们的J-14最终出来 看看再说？）
F-35正在被华盛顿政府推出，作为主力战机来替换现有的三代四代战机。韩国有可能模仿新加坡。（新加坡现在拥有F-16 F-15 并且最终将他们替换成JSF）
F-15SE在我们的考虑中是非常有优势的竞争者。对于第5代战斗机的考虑不仅仅是韩国在考虑，现在全世界都在考虑这个问题。 隐形概念十分性感！ 第5代战机十分性感！ 但是我们更想要双引擎的具有AESA（主动电子扫描？）能力中程多用途战斗机。