美军资深加油机飞官分析轰油六南海作战!

描述: 前美国空军加油机飞行员Mike Little 所分析的歼-8D战机通过与轰油-6不同的空中加油方式所能达到的1200KM,1500KM与1800KM任务半径。

图片:

美军资深加油机飞官分析轰油六南海作战!


美军资深加油机飞官分析轰油六南海作战!

描述:模拟器

图片:

美军资深加油机飞官分析轰油六南海作战!

俺最近翻译滴~~8过是翻译节选,后面会把没翻译的部分也发上来,懒得翻译了。


以下为前美国空军加油机飞行员Mike Little撰写的关于推测歼-8系列战机通过空中加油执行战斗空中巡航(CAP)任务时在第二岛链区域可能达到的作战范围的文章的摘录。摘录中分析了我国轰油-6加油机的性能,他认为,媒体往往低估了这款加油机的能力。


文章分析称,事实上,苏联时代数量最多,使用最为广泛的加油机就是图-16“獾”型轰炸机的加油机改型(我国轰-6轰炸机为图-16轰炸机的国产版本)。而英国皇家空军在直到最近的很长时间内都使用与图-16飞机规格和性能类似的“胜利者”型轰炸机改型加油机。尤其考虑到轰油-6飞机的授油对象主要为歼-8系列(如歼-8D)战机,而这种飞机的内油量相对较低。因此,轰油-6飞机的加油效能可能比人们的一般认识更高。


文章称,中国并不是第一个将轰炸机等其他机体改装成加油机的国家。比如前苏联人就做过两次:第一次他们将图-16轰炸机改装成图-16Z加油机,这种加油机可以随时被改装回轰炸机的构型,执行攻击任务。随后他们发展了图-16N。图-16N可以装载42.2吨航空燃油,其挂载的燃油量大约比正常载油量多出8吨。为了达到这个指标,可以采取加强飞机结构强度的方法,或者给飞机减重约5吨。因为图-16N的最大起飞重量仍然为图-16飞机的75.8吨,文章作者认为苏联人采取了减轻飞机重量的方法。而中国的工程方法,作者分析为应该和苏联的思想类似,但没有那么激进。作者分析,中国的轰油-6飞机可以使航空燃油的装载量提高4吨,从而达到37吨的油量—工程方法是在炸弹舱内安放油箱。这个油量标准和在西方被广泛使用的作为中型加油机的C-130加油机改型处于同一水平。C-130加油机同样也主要为战斗机进行加油。


文章称,对比C-130加油机改型与轰油-6飞机, C-130加油机改型的工作高度更低,由于使用平直翼型与使用涡桨发动机,有更大的任务半径。中国制造的运-8飞机有类似的性能。而中国选择轰-6作为加油机平台,则说明中国在加油机速度/使用高度与任务半径之间进行了审慎的考虑。文章作者认为,之所以最终选择轰-6飞机,除了歼-8D等战机低速性较差的原因外,更多因为中国希望加油机能以更快的速度更好的配合战机执行任务---或多或少,有些像个巨大的副油箱的感觉。这需要加油机能以相对运-8这类飞机更快的速度进行巡航。



在保障歼-8飞机作战方面,作者以自己执行空中加油任务的经验推算,2架轰油-6飞机可以保障由12架歼-8D战机组成的三个战斗空中巡航(CAP)编队在1200公里的半径上作战。在800公里处,加油机会与战机进行交会并进行空中加油,在这个距离上,如果任何歼-8D飞机万一加油失败,战机自身还会有够用的燃油自行飞回基地。在1200千米的战斗巡航半径上,战机加油后可以继续前出,轰油-6则会飞回基地。随后起飞的加油机则会前出继续支持战机的作战任务。


同样,轰油-6飞机可以支持歼-8战机1500公里的作战半径,但是加油机-战机的比例将会被调整到1比4。而当1架轰油-6战机保障2架歼-8战机时,则可以达到1800千米的作战半径,但这对于轰油-6和歼-8战机来说都比较勉强(其他不说,一名飞行员持续坐在狭窄座舱内的弹射座椅上5个半小时可不是轻松的活!)。然而,更长的作战半径,比如2000公里以上的作战半径,仍然可以通过“作战后交会加油”来达到。这种加油方式是美国空军与英国皇家空军的标准加油作战任务之一,并且被其他国家航空兵广泛采用。例如,在1982年的马岛战争中,阿根廷航空兵频繁的遂行了“作战后交会加油”的任务。


作者写道,如果研究下中国南海的地图,则会理解轰油-6空中加油机所赋予中国航空兵的能力。以海南为基地,歼-8战机可以遂行一系列作战任务,包括为轰-6导弹载机护航进行反舰作战任务,或者为空降部队空降作战进行空中掩护。尤其是通过空中加油,战机作战半径可以覆盖南海诸岛上空。在任何情况下,歼-8D等战机通过空中加油,达到1200千米的作战半径是非常现实的,并且在这个距离上仍然具有可观的任务弹性/灵活性。


作者认为,即使中国购买IL-78加油机,轰油-6飞机也不会被替代。一份澳大利亚的研究报告指出,中/小型加油机有着显著的优势:灵活性与相对低的购买与运行费用,并且对于澳大利亚没有财力维持大型加油机与中型加油机队的组合表示遗憾。美国,英国,俄罗斯都使用中型-大型加油机的组合。目前看来,中国也将走同样的道路。

这样看来,轰油-6是一种非常务实的机型。在投资较少的情况下,轰油-6飞机有力的推动了解放军空军航空兵与海军航空兵部队的力量投送范围。另据外国媒体报道,中国正在试飞一种采用了涡扇发动机的新型轰-6飞机。新的发动机极大的改善了飞机的油耗条件,加大了航程。如果改装成加油机,则会显著提升自身的加油能力。


文章作者为前美国空军加油机飞行员Mike Little。Mike Little在KC-135加油机上积累了超过4000小时的飞行经验。

美军资深加油机飞官分析轰油六南海作战!

没翻译的部分:


Two variants of the H-6 tanker have been noted: the HU-6 (or H-6U) PLAAF version, and the PLANAF's HU-6D (or H-6DU). These designations are uncertain, but for clarity we'll call them HU-6 and HU-6D. They can be distinguished by the HU-6 having a "solid" nose radome and the HU-6D retaining a "glass" nose with a chin radome. Observed serials for the HU-6 include 43595, 43698 and 43499. Ten HU-6s are thought to be assigned to the 8th Air Division (or possibly the 48th) at Leiyang Airbase in Guangzhou Military Region. The number and location of the HU-6Ds is uncertain but some sources mention them operating out of Lingshui (where the EP-3 landed in 2001!) on Hainan Island.


Turning to modifications, the "solid" nose and the removal of the chin radome in the PLAAF model appear to be related. The original '50s technology NAS-1 bomb-nav system with the old RBP-4 ground-mapping radar was replaced by a lighter, more modern navigation suite featuring dual INS, two "TACAN" (or possibly RSBN), and a weather radar in the nose. Besides saving weight this probably reduced drag somewhat and the weather radar - even without 360 degree coverage - could almost certainly be used in a ground mapping mode to aid navigation. Removing the PV-23 defensive fire control system would result in substantial weight savings, since the guns by themselves weigh 43kg apiece, never mind the turrets, sights, computer and attendant radar. One substantial difference from the Russian Tu-16 tankers is that while these employed either a unique wingtip-to-wingtip system or a single drogue from a hose-drum-unit in the bomb bay, the HU-6 tankers have two underwing pods. These were developed by the China Research Institute of Aero Accessories, and are common to both the PLAAF and PLANAF aircraft.


Although the guns have been removed it's been reported that a radar warning system and chaff/flare dispensers have been retained. This is an intelligent decision that should increase the aircraft's survivability in actual combat operations. As force multipliers tankers have long been high value assets - and thus high value targets - but provision for self protection by individual airplanes (beyond a coat of camouflage paint) have been slow in coming, at least in the USAF.


Removal of the fire control system would appear to render gunners superfluous, however it is likely that the gun positions in the aft fuselage are still manned by scanners to monitor the refueling. This is common practice in other air forces; for example, the Canadians add a scanner to the crew of their CC-130H(T)s for refueling sorties (required crew for such missions is pilot, copilot, navigator, flight engineer, loadmaster, and scanner). This supposition is supported by one photo of an HU-6D tanker that appears to show the silhouette of a crewmember in the tail gunner's position, and another that shows a line of HU-6s with six crewmen running towards each aircraft. Extrapolating from the bomber versions, these are probably pilot, copilot, navigator, weapon systems officer (WSO – but literally “navigator-gunner” in Russian), radio operator, and scanner (it is likely that one of the last three is also tasked with operating the defensive systems). It also appears that the WSO has retained his dorsal bubble behind the cockpit. If the PLAAF and PLANAF still employ celestial navigation to back up the aircraft's electronic systems, the WSO is most likely the crewmember responsible for taking the navigator's sextant shots from that bubble.


Radio and light signals are reportedly available for the refueling itself, although it isn't clear precisely what these consist of. In photographs the signal lights on the A/R pods aren't visible, and since the photos were taken under bright day/VFR conditions other lighting isn't apparent, either. On most Western pods of this type the lights are red, yellow and green, and are often located behind a transparent panel below the opening for the drogue. However, at least one photo of a J-8D refueling simulator shows something above the pods that may be a light housing. Besides signal lights there is probably a system to illuminate portions of the airframe to give the receiver pilot a visual reference for A/R under low light conditions. The refueling-specific "radio signal" is something of a mystery, but may refer to a system whereby the receiver(s) can talk to the tanker crew "radio silent" (over the tanker's intercom) once plugged in to the drogue. For communications in general the aircraft is reported to have two VHF and two "frequency-hopping" (probably UHF) radios.


From examining open sources it appears that the only mode of operation observed to date has been "buddy" or escort-type refueling. However, the HU-6 is equipped with an air-to-air Tacan-like system (based on Russian RSBN) that provides "mutual detection" (apparently azimuth and range information) between tanker and receiver within 200 km and is obviously intended to facilitate rendezvous. These are likely to be by timing (what the USAF terms an "enroute" rendezvous), and it's possible that something similar to an anchor-type refueling - which is, in essence, refueling in a holding pattern - is planned for some situations.


According to some reports PLAAF H-6 pilots (presumably including the crews of the tanker versions) only get 80 flying hours a year. [1] Flying hours by themselves are not necessarily a good guide to the level of training. They are really used for higher-level planning purposes and relate to funds allotted for such things as fuel, oil, maintenance on the airframe, and other expenses, which are generally computed by flying hour. If you've ever rented an airplane you may recall you paid by the hour, same kind of thing. That said, 80 hours seems very low. This amount of time would only allow for one three-hour training sortie (which I would expect to be the shortest duration of flight that would allow the crew to meet minimum training requirements) every two weeks. For comparison, in the early 1990s (and it probably hasn't changed very much since then) KC-135 pilots, copilots, navigators and boom operators (who operate the refueling systems on the KC-135) might expect to fly around 250 hours per year. [2]


SAC KC-135 crews were also required to conduct thus-and-so-many takeoffs, landings, instrument approaches, rendezvous, air refuelings, navigation training legs, contacts (physical connection of the refueling boom to the receiver aircraft's receptacle), and so forth during these sorties. Some training - especially emergency procedures - could be done in a simulator, and the PLA's lack of available flying time may be why there is such emphasis in open-source Chinese literature on the use of simulators. It also implies extensive use of part-task trainers and other training devices to help keep aircrew current in their mission specialties without having to actually go fly. Using standard Russian practice as a guide, the crew probably plans the sortie, runs through all the planned events and any likely contingencies in a simulator and/or part-task trainer, flies the mission, then debriefs it exhaustively. This also suggests that Chinese unit commanders and flight instructors are under a lot of pressure to wring all possible benefit from every moment in the air!


原文:


* Edited by xinhui on Oct. 18 2002,09:50


Revised by Mike Little, August 2009


http://www.china-defense.com/aviation/h6tanker/h6tanker01.html

美军资深加油机飞官分析轰油六南海作战!

空中加油开始彪起来辣,嘎嘎。。。强烈希望海航装备3代重型制空战斗机,基本不用加油。嘎嘎。。。。如果6K也改加油机就更好咧,虽然像铁背心这样的大户都一心想着大加油机。嘎嘎~~~


中国军网8月7日电 邓建波 何群光 特约通讯员高宏伟摄影报道:8月3日,在南海上空南航、北航协同成功实施了远海空中实战演练。中国海军航空兵再次在南海上空成功实现空中对接,并形成了较大规模的空中加受油能力。


由于远海作战半径大,受武器装备性能局限,“够不着”一直是制约海军远海空中作战能力提升的难题。为进一步破解这一“瓶颈”,今年年初,在上级机关指导下,南航某部、北航某部严格按纲施训,协同组织实施空中加受油训练。


空中加受油训练,技术难度大、风险高,是对飞行员技战术水平的全面检验。空中受油机向加油机对接时,距离误差不能超过1米,航向误差不能超过1度。尤其是受油机,要克服加油机尾涡气流影响,将受油探头套入很小的加油锥套,难度之大、风险之高无异于“穿针引线”。


在当天的演练中,先后有数名新成员成功受油,其中一个团成为海军航空兵加受油部队的新一员,标志着中国海军航空兵远海作战能力得到了进一步提升。

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广空航空兵某师坚持以科学发展观指导训练,不断挖掘战机性能,通过南海纵深战斗巡逻中实施空中加受油课目,创造出二代战机远海方向最远航程记录,部队遂行空中进攻作战能力进一步增强。 中国军事图片中心 罗培武 摄 (责任编辑:孙礼)

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