澳大利亚人报:中国援助也许害了斐济!

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导读:[09.04.23 澳大利亚人报]中国援助也许害了斐济 [译文] AS Chinese leaders like to see it, China gives aid without any political strings attached. But when you suddenly start bankrolling a pariah military dictatorship, does that argument really hold any water? 作为中国领导人希

[09.04.23 澳大利亚人报]中国援助也许害了斐济



[译文]

AS Chinese leaders like to see it, China gives aid without any political strings attached. But when you suddenly start bankrolling a pariah military dictatorship, does that argument really hold any water?

作为中国领导人希望看到,中国给予帮助从不附带任何政治因素,但是当他们突然开始给一个无赖军政专制政府提供资金时,那些争论还真正推敲的起码?

In the year following the 2006 coup in Fiji, Chinese aid pledges increased seven-fold. That is, from about $US23million in 2006 to a staggering $US161 million in 2007. A lot of that aid was not dispersed immediately, but what news escapes from Fiji these days suggests China has kept up its commitment to roll out the promised funds. The Fiji Electricity Authority and theChinese Development Bank signed a $US70 million loan agreement to commence the construction of the Nadarivatu Hydropower project. Chinese loans are also helping to fund other infrastructure projects in Fiji.

在斐济2006年政变以前,中国的援助允诺就增加7倍。换句话说,从2006年的2千3百万美元到2007年令人惊讶的1亿6千1百万美元,许多援助不是马上到位。但是一些来自斐济的消息透露,建议中国维持承诺,放行允诺资金,斐济电力部门和中国开发银行签订了一项7千万美元的借款合同,用来建造Nadarivatu 水电站的基础建设,中国的贷款也援助斐济的其他基础建设。


The relative weight of China's aid program in Fiji is worth noting. Whereas Australia is still the largest aid donor in the Pacific region as a whole, its 2008-09 aid program for Fiji is a rather meagre $26.9million. As the interim regime in Fiji has been isolated by Western nations in an effort to help the people win back their democracy, China has stepped in to fill the donor void.

在斐济,中国援助项目的重要性不言而喻。但是总体来说,澳大利亚始终是太平洋地区最大的援助捐赠者,但2008-9援助给斐济的计划也是相当弱小的2千6白9十万美金,当西方为了尽力帮助斐济人民赢回他们的民主,对斐济过度政府采取了孤立政策,而中国插了进来,填补了援助空间。

comAlthough funds from China have yet to make a measurable beneficial impact on Fiji's economy, the symbolism of Chinese aid is important. While the international community has been shunning Fiji's interim government, Chinese Vice-President Xi Jinping met Fiji's President Josefa Iloilo and interim Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama when he visited Nadi on a transit stop on February 9.

经管中国的资金对斐济的经济仍然产生可估量的有益影响,中国象征性的援助也是很重要的,当国家社会疏远斐济过度政府时候,2月9日,中国国家副主席习近平出访时,过境NADI机场中转,会见了斐济总统Josefa Iloilo和过度政府总理.

; oFrank Bainimarama。Bainimarama's regime has been pursuing a look-north policy since his relations with Australia and New Zealand fell apart after his December 2006 coup. Unlike Australia, New Zealand, the EU and the US, China refuses to comment on the domestic political affairs of other nations. In its dealings with Fiji's interim government, Beijing has not mentioned the importance of democracy nor linked its aid to elections. Bainimarama has portrayed China as Fiji's saviour to his supporters and to Fijians concerned about their next pay cheque.

Frank Bainimarama政权自2006年12月政变以后,发现澳大利亚和新西兰疏远了他,他开始了“望北”政策。不像澳大利亚,新西兰,欧盟,美国,中国拒绝评论别国的内政。作为和斐济过渡政府的交易,北京即不提起民主的重要性,也不把援助和选举挂钩。Frank Bainimarama把北京对他的支持描绘成了斐济人的救世主,同时斐济人也关注他们的下一张现金支票。

[Fiji's economy deteriorated rapidly in the first quarter of 2009. A perfect storm of devastating floods in January, the negative impact of the global financial crisis on demand for tourism and exports, and ongoing loss of business confidence following the coup had already hit Fiji before the April 10 abrogation of the constitution made matters much worse. The Reserve Bank of Fiji had already forecast a contraction of the economy; exports and investment were already lower than expected. Official foreign reserves have plummeted to just 2.7 months of import cover.

2009年的第一季度,斐济的经济全面而化,一月强风暴应发破坏性很大的洪灾,全球金融危机的游客的需求和出口的负面影响,随着政变而降低的消费信心已经承重地打击了斐济,而在4月10日废除宪法造成了更恶劣的影响。斐济央行已经调低了经济预期,出口和投资已经低于预期,官方外汇储备垂直下降到月支付进口额的

Fiji's relative size and strategic importance in the Pacific mean that the wider Pacific Islands region will suffer from its economic decline. Preventing the collapse of Fiji's economy is critical not only for Fiji but for the stability of the region. Fiji clearly needs financial assistance, and quickly. But it is important that assistance is provided in a manner that helps the people who need it and does not simply prop up Bainimarama and his coterie.

由于由于斐济的规模和战略重要性,其经济下降也将影响其他在大洋洲,也意味着大太平洋岛国区域的国家,防止斐济的经济滑坡至关重要,不仅仅关于斐济,同时也是为地区稳定。斐济清楚表明需要资金援助,而且要迅速,但是从某种意义上说,援助那些需要援助的人民,比简单支持Bainimarama和他的同伙重要。

China has chosen to step up its aid to Fiji and take on the mantle of major donor. Its track record elsewhere suggests China has neither the will nor capacity to assume responsibility for fixing things if the country implodes. Australian and NZ officials have realised this and recently we have seen the question of China's role in Fiji raised with senior Chinese officials.

对斐济的重大援助,中国似乎选择披着斗篷,以往在别国的记录提醒中国,如果受援国内乱,既达不到他们的愿望,而且也于事无补。澳洲和新西兰官方已经意识到了这点。最近我们已经看到中国高层对中国在斐济的角色问题有了极大关注。

If China wants to be taken seriously as a responsible international actor, it needs to behave in a mature way in Fiji. Fiji's interim government will almost certainly request more financial assistance from China to help it respond to its liquidity crisis. China is likely to be willing to help.Beijing knows the Fiji economy is in trouble and, as an investor in the island nation, will be keen to do what it can to help Fiji avert a financial catastrophe. The financial assistance Fiji requires, however, is beyond the capacity of any single donor, even China

如果中国想成为一个认真负责的国际角色,在斐济需要用成人的行为,斐济过渡政府几乎确定要求中国提供更多资金来帮他还债,中国似乎也乐意帮助。北京知道斐济经济困难,作为一个岛国的投资者,会非常热心帮助斐济度过经济难关.

Rather than offer more bilateral assistance, China should be encouraged by Australia and others to direct new assistance to Fiji through international financial institutions. This would be consistent with the commitments made by the G20 leaders in London to increase the resources available through the international financial institutions so those institutions can help developing countries cope with the global financial crisis. It would send an important signal to Fiji's interim government that its only option is to deal with the international financial institutions and adopt the disciplines they recommend to stabilise the economy. And it would fit squarely with G20 leaders' efforts to integrate China into co-ordinated responses.

胜于提供双边援助,澳洲和其他国家应鼓励北京采取通过国际援助机构对斐济直接新的援助。这也是G20领导人峰会在伦敦达成的一致承诺,增加国际金融机构的可用资源,通过国际金融机构帮助发展中国家应付全球金融危机。这将会给斐济临时政府提供一个很重要的信号,那就是只有一种选择,同国际金融机构交易,采纳他们推荐的准则来稳定经济。这符合G20领导人的努力,让中国有同等响应。

comLooking at China's engagement with other regimes (Sudan's and Burma's, for example), the prospect of it changing its approach might seem far-fetched, but Fiji is a little different. Relatively, China doesn't have that much to gain from Fiji. China also wants rewards from Australia (such as approval for resources investments), which offers some room for compromise. For China's policy in Fiji, these changes would have few costs and some important benefits.China doesn't have to be the bad guy in Fiji. If it chooses to deliver its aid through responsible international systems, it has the chance to have a real development impact in Fiji, enhancing its reputation in the region while demonstrating a maturity befitting a great power

看看中国和其他地区的冲突(比如,苏丹,缅甸),让她改变难免牵强,但是斐济情况有些不同。相关的,中国没有从斐济获利那么多,中国也希望从澳洲获利(比如希望批准在矿产的投资),给点甜头采取折中方案。对于中国在斐济的政策,那些变化是小付出换大代价。中国还没有在斐济成为坏蛋,如果他选择通过国际机构传递援助,在斐济发展真正的影响,在本地区提升其盛誉,同时作为一个强国展示成熟的方式,这就是一个机会。

b& BJenny Hayward-Jones is program director of the Myer Foundation Melanesia Program and Fergus Hanson is a research fellow at the Lowy Institute

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