许多年来,国外新闻工作者有很多种书面的职业规范,将他们追求的目标和理想融化在其中。他们严格遵循这些职业道德规范,保护了新闻职业的崇高性,加强了人民的信任和尊敬。这里就是其中少数一些声明。


职业新闻记者协会(SPJ)职业伦理规范(英文版附后)


1996年9月制定


职业新闻记者协会成员相信,公众的启蒙是正义的先驱,民主的基石。新闻记者的职责就是通过追求真实,提供关于事件和问题的全面公平的叙述,达到启蒙公众的目的。来自所有专门领域和媒体的有责任感的记者,都努力彻底和忠实地为公众服务。职业正直感是记者信誉的基础,协会成员因此对于职业道德行为产生共同认识,并采用本规范作为协会实践原则和标准的声明。


追求真实并加以报道.新闻记者应该忠实、公正和勇敢地搜集报道和转述信息。


新闻记者应该:

●检验来自所有来源的信息的准确性,小心避免无意的错误。绝不允许故意扭曲。

●努力找到报道的主体,给他们对于声称的错误行为做出反应的机会。

●任何可能的时候, 都要指明消息来源。公众应该有尽可能多的信息来判断消息来源的可靠性。

●在承诺保证信息来源匿名之前,永远要质问一下信息来源的动机。要对为换取信息而作出的承诺中各种可能的情况都做出清楚的说明,一旦承诺,则保守诺言。

●确保标题、导读和其他突出处理的材料、照片、音像、图表、声音和印语都没有误表达。

●避免在转述和连续性的报道中误导。如果有必要转述别的媒体一条新闻, 可以这样做,但要标识清楚。

●除非传统的公开的方法不能得到对公众至关重要的信息,不要采用秘密的或窃听式的方法获取信息。如果使用了这样的方法, 在报道中应该加以说明。

●永远不要剽窃。

●勇敢地讲述关于人类经验多样性和广泛性的报道,尽管这些经验可能是不经常有的。

●检查自己的文化价值观念,并避免将这些价值观念强加给别人。

●观察人时不要被民族、性别、年龄、宗教、种族、地理、性取向、是否残障、外貌或社会地位这些因素框住。

●支持公开的意见交流,即使这些意见自己很反感。

●让无声的人们发出声音;官方信息和非官方的信息被以同样价值对待。

●在鼓吹文章和新闻报道之间做出明确区分。分析性文章和评论应被明确标出,以免与事实和报道文本相混。

●对广告和新闻做区分,避免出现模糊二者界限的杂交式文章。

●认识到自己的特殊使命,要确保公众事务是公开处理的,而且政府记录可以公开查阅。减小伤害;有职业操守的记者把新闻来源、采访对象和同事都看作值得尊敬的人。


新闻记者应该:


●对那些可能因为新闻报道而受到负面影响的人们表示同情。当面对孩子和没有经验的新闻来源或新闻主体时,要特别小心。

●当采访和使用受到正在悲伤中的人们的照片时, 要特别小心。

●要认识到采集和报道信息会引起伤害和不适,报道新闻并不意味着你就可以傲慢自大。

●要认识到,一般人比公共官员和追求权力、影响和希望引起人们注意的其他人,有更多的权利保有关于自己的信息。只有当有十分迫切的公共需要时,侵入任何人的私人领域获取信息才是正当的。

●品位要高。避免迎合任何低级趣味。

●在指出青少年犯罪嫌疑人或性犯罪受害人时,才要非常谨慎。

●在正式控诉文件出来之前指明犯罪嫌疑人时, 要非常审慎。

●在公众被告知的权利和犯罪嫌疑人被公正审判的权利之间寻求平衡。独立行动 除了公众的知情权之外, 新闻记者不应该对任何其他利益负有责任。


新闻记者应该:

●避免自己的利益与采访发生冲突,不管是现实的利益还是可能的利益。

●不参加任何可能伤害自己公正和信誉的组织和活动。

●如果将伤害记者的正直感,拒绝一切礼物、好处、费用、免费旅游和特殊对待,并避免第二职业、政治涉入、在公共办公机构或社区机构工作。

●如果这些冲突必不可免,那么将它们暴露出来。

●勇敢地要求那些拥有权力的负起责任。

●拒绝广告商的优厚待遇和特殊利益,抵制他们企图影响新闻报道的压力。

●警惕新闻来源为了好处或金钱而提供信息,避免力求新闻出现的心理。


可信

新闻记者在他们读者、听众、观众的眼中是可信的。


新闻记者应该:

●澄清和解释新闻报道,就新闻界的行为邀请公众对话。

●鼓励公众说出他们对新闻媒体的不满。

●承认错误, 并迅速纠正。

●揭露新闻记者和新闻媒体的不道德行为。

●遵守他们对于别人提出的高要求。




附录:职业新闻记者协会(SPJ)职业伦理规范(英文版)

SPJ Code of Ethics

Preamble

Members of the Society of Professional

Journalists believe that public enlightenment is

the forerunner of justice and the foundation of

democracy. The duty of the journalist is to further those ends by seeking truth and providing a fair and comprehensive account of events and issues. Conscientious journalists

from all media and specialties strive to serve the public with thoroughness and honesty.

Professional integrity is the cornerstone of a journalist’s credibility.

Members of the Society share a dedication to ethical behavior and adopt this code to declare the Society’s principles and standards of practice.


Seek Truth and Report It

Journalists should be honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information.

Journalists should:

Test the accuracy of information from all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertent error. Deliberate distortion is never permissible.

Diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrongdoing.

Identify sources whenever feasible. The public

is entitled to as much information as possible on sources’ reliability.

Always question sources’ motives before promising anonymity. Clarify conditions attached to any promise made in exchange for information.

Keep promises.

Make certain that headlines, news teases and promotional material, photos, video, audio, graphics, sound bites and quotations do not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents out of context.

Never distort the content of news photos or video. Image enhancement for technical clarity is always permissible. Label montages and photo illustrations.

Avoid misleading re-enactments or staged news events. If re-enactment is necessary to tell a story, label it.

Avoid undercover or other surreptitious methods of gathering information except when traditional open methods will not yield information vital to the public. Use of such methods should be explained as part of the story Never plagiarize.

Tell the story of the diversity and magnitude of the human experience boldly, even when it is unpopular to do so.

Examine their own cultural values and avoid imposing those values on others.

Avoid stereotyping by race, gender, age, religion, ethnicity, geography, sexual orientation, disability, physical appearance or social status.

Support the open exchange of views, even views they find repugnant.

Give voice to the voiceless; official and unofficial sources of information can be equally valid.

Distinguish between advocacy and news reporting.

Analysis and commentary should be labeled and not misrepresent fact or context.

Distinguish news from advertising and shun hybrids that blur the lines between the two.

Recognize a special obligation to ensure that the public’s business is conducted in the open and that government records are open to inspection.

Minimize Harm

Ethical journalists treat sources, subjects and

colleagues as human beings deserving of respect.


Journalists should:

Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by news coverage. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and inexperienced sources or subjects.

Be sensitive when seeking or using interviews or photographs of those affected by tragedy or grief.

Recognize that gathering and reporting information may cause harm or discomfort.

Pursuit of the news is not a license for arrogance.

Recognize that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than do public officials and others who seek power, influence or attention.

Only an overriding public need can justify intrusion into anyone’s privacy.

Show good taste. Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity.

Be cautious about identifying juvenile suspects or victims of sex crimes.

Be judicious about naming criminal suspects before the formal filing of charges.

Balance a criminal suspect’s fair trial rights with the public’s right to be informed.

Act Independently

Journalists should be free of obligation to any interest other than the public’s right to know.


Journalists should:

Avoid conflicts of interest, real or perceived.

Remain free of associations and activities that may compromise integrity or damage credibility.

Refuse gifts, favors, fees, free travel and special treatment, and shun secondary employment, political involvement, public office and service in community organizations if they compromise journalistic integrity.

Disclose unavoidable conflicts.

Be vigilant and courageous about holding those with power accountable.

Deny favored treatment to advertisers and special interests and resist their pressure to influence news coverage.

Be wary of sources offering information for favors or money; avoid bidding for news.

Be Accountable


Journalists are accountable to their readers, listeners, viewers and each other.


Journalists should:


Clarify and explain news coverage and invite dialogue with the public over journalistic conduct.

Encourage the public to voice grievances against the news media.

Admit mistakes and correct them promptly.

Expose unethical practices of journalists and the news media.

Abide by the same high standards to which they hold others.



请海外华人将其转印,贴到CNN BBC 德国 法国媒体的大门口,让他们看看.尤其是CNN,让他们看看他们的所谓记者卡弗蒂,一个几乎违背了所有新闻从业人员信条、准则和职业道德要求的人是否还有资格做他们的主持人.

请他们说明一下,他们究竟是新闻媒体还是电影 电视制作中心?