Panzerkampfwagen 6 虎 (P)VK4501(P)/Porsche Typ 101
Panzerkampfwagen VI Tiger (P)
VK4501(P) / Porsche Typ 101
On May 26th of 1941, during the meeting concerning the development of new weaponry, Adolf Hitler ordered both Dr.Porsche and Henschel to supply their designs for a heavy tank, which was to be ready in the summer of 1942. Krupp was in charge of supplying main armament and producing turrets for designs by both Henschel and Porsche. The project was known as the "Tigerprogram".
Henschel Tiger's development was based on previous designs of VK 3001(H) and VK 3601(H), while Porsche Tiger's development was based on previous design of VK 3001(P) - Leopard. None of those vehicles entered production but they provided designers with valuable experience. The new 45-ton panzer was to be armed with a 88mm KwK L/56 mounted in a turret designed by Krupp. Development of Porsche's Tiger was progressing much faster than that of Henschel since Porsche worked on an independent project for heavy tank since autumn of 1940. Henschel was not that advanced and utilized as many already available components from its previous projects to complete its VK 4501 design.
In order to speed up the development of VK4501(P), components of VK 3001(P) were modified and used. The suspension was modified version of the suspension used in the VK 3001(P) prototype. It was made up of six road-wheels and lacked return rollers. Tracks had 109 links per side and were 640mm wide with track surface contact of 4175mm (4.175m). Tiger(P) was powered by two (air-cooled) Porsche Typ 101/1 engines mounted in the rear part of the hull. Gasoline engines drove electrical generators, which drove two electric motors, which provided power to the tracks.Gasoline engines were produced with defects and were repaired but remained unreliable, while electric system used copper, which was a critical war material. Drive sprocket was in the rear instead of the standard location at the front. Electric transmission system was used similar to that ofVK 3001(P).Overall gasoline-electric power/drive system with which many problems were encountered (such as engine fire) was utilized. Its power/weight distribution limited its cross-country performance and during trials, VK4501(P) prototype was often bogged down (especially in the soft ground) and had to be towed away by recovery vehicles.
Both, Henschel and Porsche's prototypes arrived to a station near Rastenburg on April 19th of 1942 and then traveled 11km to Rastenburg, while constantly breaking down.On April 20th of 1942 at 11:00am, both Porsche and Henschel prototypes were presented to Adolf Hitler (on his birthday) in Wolfschanze (Rastenburg), East Prussia. Tests were scheduled for July and preliminary tests proved that the Tiger(P)'s design was far from being perfect and modifications were made, but none of the technical problems were fully solved from the lack time. Both VK4501(P) and VK4501(H) were armed with powerful 88mm KwK 36 L/56 gun, developed from 88mm Flak 36 L/56 gun. Originally, Krupp designed and produced the turret for Porsche's VK4501, but then it was modified and used by Henschel's VK4501. The first eight turrets produced had lower sides and a flat roof with raised centre section to allow the gun to be depressed through larger arc.
Tiger(P) had its turret mounted forward, what also made the operating in enclosed areas dangerous. In July of 1942, both prototypes were put to the extensive tests at the tank school in Berka, Germany. During the tests, Porsche's VK 4501(P) was a failure, while Henschel's VK 4501(H) was a great success. Main failure of Porsche's design laid in its advanced power and drive system, which was prone to breakdowns and required continuous maintenance. Also Tiger(P) was longer than its competitor, what made it less maneuverable. Porsche also provided possibility to arm Tiger(P) in future with 150mm KwK L/37 or 100mm L/70 gun, but it was never realized. There were also plans to utilize 88mm L/100 gun but they were also never realized.
In July of 1942, Henschel Tiger - VK 4501(H) was approved and went into production. Only five Tiger(P) were fully completed in July of 1942 by Nibelungenwerke with armored parts supplied by Krupp, before the production was stopped in August of 1942 (chassis number 150001-150010). Even before even the rejection of Tiger(P)'s design production of 90 pre-production VK4501(P) chassis started. Production of pre-production chassis continued, and in early September of 1942, it was decided to equip two sPzAbts (including sPzAbt 501) destined for North Africa with Tiger(P)s. This decision was made simply because of the stage of development and the fact that Tiger(P)'s engines were air-cooled. Once again unresolved problem of technical unreliability led to the cancellation of the production.
Albert Speer, Ferdinand Porsche and Tiger(P).
Only five fully completed Porsche Tigers were issued for training and testing purposes to the facility in Dollersheim, Austria. From August to September of 1943, three of those were converted into recovery vehicles designated - Bergepanzer Tiger(P).
Only one completed Tiger(P) with chassis number 150013 saw combat service as a command tank - Panzerbefehlswagen VI(P) with schwere Heeres Panzerjager Abteilung 653. It was used by its commander, Hauptmann Grillenberg (turret number 003), on the Eastern Front in early/mid of 1944.
Tiger(P) No.003 from schwere Heeres Panzerjager Abteilung 653
On September 22nd of 1942, it was decided to convert 90 of the existing chassis into Ferdinand / Elephant, heavy assault gun and tank destroyers. Based on the experiences of Stalingrad street fighting, on November 22nd of 1942, Hitler approved the production of a single Rammtiger - barricade and obstacle destroyer. Porsche completed the planning stage by December 7th of 1942 and on January 5th of 1943, Adolf Hitler decided that three VK4501(P) chassis are to be modified and converted to Rammtiger / Raumpanzer Tiger(P). This lightly armed (with MG) vehicle was to be a standard VK4501(P)'s hull mounted with streamlined upper superstructure and front mounted plow (ploughshare). The streamlined shape of the superstructure would allow the rubble to slide off the vehicle. In May of 1943, three superstructures were completed and three Rammtigers were ready in August of 1943. Their fate is unknown after August of 1943, but it is unlikely that they saw any combat and probably remained at Nibelungenwerke. Other sources state that only 1:10 and / or 1:15 scale model was made when the entire concept was rejected and three chassis were used as previously planned.
Crew: 5 men
Engine: 2 x Porsche Typ 101/1 / 10-cylinder / 320hp
Fuel Capacity: 520 litres
Speed: Road: 20-35km/h
Range: Road: 80-110km
Lenght: 9.34m (with the gun)
6.70m (w/o the gun)
Width: 3.38m (with the aprons)
3.14m (w/o the aprons)
Armament: 88mm KwK 36 L/56 & 2 x 7.92mm MG34
Ammo: 88mm - 64-80 rounds
7.92mm - 4350 rounds
Armor (mm/angle): Front Turret: 100/8
Front Superstructure: 100/12
Front Hull: 100/35
Side Turret: 80/0
Side Superstructure: 80/0
Side Hull: 60/0
Rear Turret: 80/0
Rear Hull: 80/0
Top / Bottom Turret: 25/81 / 25/90
Top / Bottom Superstructure: 20/90
Top / Bottom Hull: 20/90
Gun Mantlet: 100-110/0
Penetration of Armor Plate at 30 degrees from Vertical.
Ammunition: 100m 500m 1000m 1500m 2000m
Panzergranate 39 120mm 110mm 100mm 91mm 84mm
Panzergranate 40 171mm 156mm 138mm 123mm 110mm
Pzgr.39 (APCBC) - Armor Piercing Composite Ballistic Cap
Pzgr.40 (APCR) - Armor Piercing Composite Rigid (Tungsten Core)
• Bergepanzer Tiger(P) - recovery vehicle,
• Raumpanzer Tiger(P) / Rammtiger - barricade and obstacle destroyer,
• Ferdinand / Elephant - heavy assault gun and tank destroyer,
在1941年5月26日, 在关于新武器发展会议期间，阿道夫.ＸＴＬ命令 保时捷博士和 亨舍尔都提供一个新型重型战车的设计, 要在1942年夏天准备好.克虏伯负责供应主要武器而且为两者的设计生产炮塔。这个计划被称为“虎计划”。
亨舍尔“虎”的发展以早先设计的VK 3001(H) 和 VK 3601(H)为基础,而保时捷“虎”的发展以早先设计的VK3001（P）“利奥波德” 为基础。虽然这些车辆没有一辆进入生产，但是它们为设计师们提供了宝贵的经验。 新型的45吨坦克将装上由克虏伯设计炮塔 ，主炮是88mm KwK L/56。保时捷的进度较快，因为自1940年夏天以来他就在进行独立的重型坦克项目。亨舍尔的速度没有那么快，而且尽可能的利用了很多以前设计的零件来完成它的 VK 4501 设计。
为了要加速 VK4501(P) 的发展，VK3001(P) 的零件被修改并且用在了前者上。VK4501(P)的悬挂装置就是VK3001(P)悬挂装置的改进型。 它有六个负重轮，没有托带轮。每侧履带由 109个联编组成，640mm宽，接地部分4175mm(4.175m)。虎 (P) 在车体的后部装有两台(气冷) Porsche Typ 101/1引擎。汽油引擎驱动发电机, 发电机为两台电力引擎提供动力。汽油引擎生产时就有毛病，即使经过修理仍然是不可靠的；而电力系统需要铜, 属于战时紧缺资源。主动轮在车体后部而不是标准的前部。电传动系统和VK 3001(P) 的相似。 总而言之即使是遭遇了很多问题(例如引擎失火)，汽油/电力推进系统仍然被利用。 重量/动力比限制了它的越野性能。而且在测试期间，VK4501(P) 原型车时常陷住（尤其是在松软地形），必须被维修车辆拖开。
亨舍尔和保时捷的原型车都在1942年4月19日运抵一个靠近拉斯滕堡的车站，然后在频繁的机械故障中行驶11公里到拉滕斯堡。1942年4月20日早上 11:00，保时捷和 亨舍尔原型车都在东普鲁士的狼穴（拉滕斯堡）呈现给ＸＴＬ (在他的生日之上)。 测试七月被制定，而且初步测试表明虎(P)离完美还很远。尽管进行了改进，但是因为缺乏时间没有任何技术上的问题被完全解决。VK4501(P)和VK4501(H)都用强大的88mm KwK 36 L/56火炮，改进自88mm36 L/56高射炮。本来，克虏伯专门为保时捷的VK4501设计并且生产了炮塔，但是然后它被改装给亨舍尔的VK4501。最初生产的八个炮塔侧面较低，顶部平坦并且中间区域隆起，这样可以增大坦克的俯仰角。
虎 (P) 的炮塔装在车体前部，这样使它在被包围时会很危险。 在1942年七月,两辆原型在德国贝尔卡的战车学校进行大量的测试,。 测试表明VK 4501(P) 是失败了，而 亨舍尔VK 4501(H) 则取得了极大的成功。保时捷主要的失败在于超前的动力和操纵系统易于损坏而且需要了连续的维护。 老虎 (P) 也比它的竞争者长, 使它机动性较差。 虽然保时捷使虎（P）安装150mm KwK L/37 或 100mm L/70 炮成为可能 ，但是它从没被成为现实。 也有计划利用 88mm L/100炮但是它们同样没被采用。
在1942年七月, 亨舍尔的VK 4501(H) 经核准进入批量生产。在1942年八月停产前只有五辆虎 (P) (底盘号150001 号-150010)完全在1942年七月被 Nibelungenwerke完成 并且安装了克虏伯的武器。甚至在虎 (P) 的设计被拒绝以前，90辆前期生产的 VK4501(P) 底盘的制造开始，一直持续到1942年九月。它们被决定用来装备被为北非的两个中型坦克营(包括501重型坦克营) ，仅仅是因为它们的引擎是气冷的。同样，技术上的缺陷使这一计划失败。
只有五辆完成的虎（P）（作为训练和测试）在奥地利的杜勒谢姆（Dollersheim）被生产出来。 在1943年八月到九月, 其中三辆被改装成维修车------维修虎(P)。
来自 schwere Heeres Panzerjager Abteilung 653 的老虎 (P) No.003
在1942年9月22日,计划将已经生产出来的90辆底盘改装成费迪南 /象，重型自行反坦克炮。基于在斯大林格勒巷战的经验,在1942年11月22日, ＸＴＬ批准了一辆“撞击虎” 的制造------障碍物摧毁坦克。保时捷在1942年12月7 日的完成计划。在1943年1月5日，ＸＴＬ决定那三辆 VK4501(P) 底盘要被改装成撞击战车/撞击虎(P)。这种轻武装 (一挺机枪) 车辆是在标准的 VK4501(P) 的车体上加上了一个流线型突起的上层结构，而且前面装上了犁铧(ploughshare)。上部的流线型构造会使粗石离开车体滑动到两边。 在1943五月三个上部构造被完成，而且在1943年八月3辆撞击虎准备完毕。它们之后的命运不得而知。但是它们看起来不太可能参加过任何的战斗，或许一直被保存在 Nibelungenwerke 。 其他的资料说只有 1:10 及 1:15 比例模型被制造，当整个计划被放弃后，三辆底盘被用当做先前计划了（估计是改装成“象”）。
引擎:2 x Porsche Typ 101/1/10缸 /320hp
道路: 20-35 km/h
越野: 8-10 km/h
道路: 80-110 km
越野: 48-50 km
军备:88mm KwK 36 L/56&2 x 7.92mm MG34
炮塔顶 /底部: 25/81/25/90
上部构造顶 /底部: 20/90
车体顶 /底部: 20/90
彈藥 100m 500m 1000m 1500m 2000m
Panzergranate 39 120mm 110mm 100mm 91mm 84mm
Panzergranate 40 171mm1 56mm 138mm 123mm 110mm
费迪南 / 象-------重型自行反坦克炮