Blitzkrieg——闪电战

Blitzkrieg

闪电战

The successful German tactic of rapidly advancing armored forces and massive air support

德国通过装甲部队和大量空中支援快速推进的成功战术

In German, Blitzkrieg means lightning war (Blitz-Krieg). Blitzkrieg was named so because it included surprise attacks, "Lighting fast" rapid advances into enemy territory, with coordinated massive air attacks, which struck and shocked the enemy as if it was struck by lightning. The German military in World War 2 achieved most of its great victories with the Blitzkrieg tactic.

在德语中,闪电战意为快如闪电般的战斗。闪电战之所以被如此命名因为它包括:突然袭击,以闪电般的速度快速推进到敌人的领土,并配以大量的空中攻击来协助,从而使受到打击的敌人犹如被闪电击中一般。德国在第二次世界大战期间大部分伟大的军事成就都离不开闪电战策略的功劳。

The development of Blitzkrieg

闪电战的发展

第一次世界大战(1914-1918)是一场长时间的静态堑壕战。在大炮和机枪面前无论是步兵还是骑兵发动的地面军事行动几乎都是自殺性的。至少对于脆弱的步兵和骑兵来说,来自机枪和大炮的炮火完全中和了所有的军事行动。但是在战争期间,两项革M性的武器系统被发明并初步投入了战斗,它们是:披挂装甲的坦克和战斗用的飞机。

战后,各国军方对这两样新式武器的深入研究和与其它武器进行组合的潜力给予了不同程度的关注。海军让飞机和大型船只结合创造了航空母舰,它超大的攻击范围使统治海洋长达数个世纪的巨舰重炮走下历史舞台。在苏联,由于她拥有最宽广的领土,一支强大的伞兵得以组建使步兵有了更强的机动力,同时一支快速坦克部队也被建造了起来以适应在广大领土上进行作战行动的需要。在英国,重装甲保护的“步兵坦克”被用来给步兵提供机动的火力支援。而较轻型的“巡洋坦克”被用来替换已经明显过时的骑兵。

其它军队,像法国和波兰,都还保守地停留在以前的战争模式中。法国把他们的国防预算用来建造他们的超级防御工事——马其诺防线。它绵绵不断数百公里拥有巨型碉堡,地下暗堡和隧道还配有重型的固定火炮。波兰军队的主要机动部队还保留着过时的骑兵。两个国家都对空军给予极少的预算和关注。

The German military, bound by severe post-war limitations, was practically forced to develop the most efficient new tactics, which naturally involved using tanks and aircraft for mobile ground warfare. It also learned from and improved over the ideas of British military theoreticians, mainly Basil Liddell-Hart, which openly published their new ideas about fast and deep armor advancement as the future combat tactic.

德国的军事由于受战后条约的严格限制,被迫去发展最有效的新战术,在这过程中自然而然的牵涉到了运用坦克和飞机来进行机动作战。他们也学习和改进了英国军事学家的观点,其中主要包括李德哈特公开出版的有关装甲部队快速纵深推进的未来新式战术的新兴观点。

在1920年代早期,德国军事力量的首脑,冯•西克特将军,曾经撰写到:将来的战争将会由更小但是具有高度机动力和质量的军队来参加,同时来自飞机支援将使它们更具效率。1929年,德国步兵官员,海因策•古德里安,被派到在喀山的德国和苏联共同创立的坦克学校。这个学校正是德国人为了可以绕过战后条约的限制在苏联进行坦克的训练和操作而创立的。

Guderian read the British books about the new principles of tank warfare, and while in Britain Liddell-Hart's ideas were given little military attention, Guderian practically developed them over several years and demonstrated them to his superiors in military exercises and war games.

古德里安在那里阅读了英国有关坦克战新兴理论的书籍,而李德哈特的理论在英国却基本没有得到军方的注意。在随后的几年,古德里安从实际出发发展了这些理论,并通过军事演习和战争游戏来向他的长官证明其可行性。

有两个因素使古德里安的战术思想在德国军方里远比在其他国家里占主导地位。第一,在第一次世界大战战败后,德国高层有很多开明人士准备去检验和接受新观点。第二,很多国家经历了第一次世界大战的血腥后都开始信奉和平Z義。从1933年开始,德国的新领袖阿道夫•XTL想要尽快地发动一场新的大规模战争。他把德国军队重新推上了全面武装之路,完全无视和平条约的限制,并把大量的预算都投入到重整军备上。

XTL需要正确的工具来为他的大规模战争服务,它必须使将来的战争与第一次世界大战截然不同,必须能够使德国在工业和军事职业化上的优势得到充分发挥。尽管他在一战时还只不过是一个下士,但XTL无论在战术还是技术上都有良好和富有创造力的军事洞察力。所以在他掌权不久后就观看了由古德里安指挥的坦克与摩托化步兵的联合演习,他立刻感觉到他找到了他需要的军事工具。他说道:“那就是我所需要的,那就是我想要的。”在XTL的支持下,德国弱小的坦克和摩托化步兵力量开始迅速扩张,同时坦克的发展和生产得到了强有力的推动。古德里安他自己也被迅速提升为新建装甲师的师长之一。在1938年他成为第一装甲军团的司令,在同一年的后期他被任命为机动部队总监,可以直接向XTL汇报事务。在他的精神感染和严格的训练下,装备有大量新式闪电战武器的德国军队已经做好了将在战场上实施闪电战的一切准备。

The elements and weapons of Blitzkrieg

闪电战要素

The elements of Blitzkrieg directly obey all the principles of war. That's what made it so successful.

闪电战的要素都严格遵循了所有的战争准则,这也是它如此成功的原因。

◆Armor concentrations - the dense concentration of strong firepower, the high mobility, and the survivability of rapidly advancing large groups of tanks were far more than anything seen before it in any ground battlefield in history. It made Cavalry totally obsolete, and made infantry quite helpless in an open battlefield unless they were massively equipped with efficient anti-tank weapons which were developed only in response to Blitzkrieg and really matured only near the end of World War 2. The German tank units were highly trained. Many of them were considered elite units and provided the best soldiers and commanders. The German tanks were the first really efficient battle tanks. In addition to tanks, there were mechanized infantry units which allowed the infantry to advance together with the tanks, providing them better protection from enemy infantry and anti-tank units where they were more vulnerable to it. When infantry fighting vehicles were not available, the infantry used to simply ride over the tanks.

◆集中使用装甲部队——高度集中的强大火力,快速机动能力,还有迅速推进时的强大生存能力都使装甲部队远超过以前历史上任何一场战争中出现过的任何部队。它使得骑兵显得完全过时,使步兵在开阔地上显得万分无助,除非他们大量装备有效的反坦克炮。但是反坦克炮正是作为对闪电战的回应才发展起来的,直至第二次世界大战末尾才逐渐成熟。德国的坦克部队都是经过严格训练的,他们被认为是精英部队而被配以最优秀的士兵和指挥官。德国的坦克是第一款能真正有效投入战斗的坦克。除了坦克,机械化步兵能够与坦克一起推进,为他们提供更好的保护以远离来自敌人步兵和反坦克武器的威胁。当步兵的战斗车辆不能得到满足时,步兵经常会搭乘在坦克上前进。

◆Massive precise air support - the effective precision destructiveness made possible by precise aerial bombardment left common artillery far behind. Artillery was also too slow to follow the rapidly advancing tank groups. So in addition to ordinary artillery, the German military was aided by a very large number of Stuka dive bombers which could quickly and efficiently destroy the enemy obstacles in the tanks path (artillery units, fortifications, infantry concentrations, bridges, convoys, etc).

◆大规模精准的空中支援——空中轰炸的高效准确和毁灭性把炮兵远远甩在了后面。同时炮兵也无法跟上坦克的推进速度。所以除了普通的炮兵外,德国军队还装备了大量的斯图卡式俯冲轰炸机,它能够迅速有效的消灭坦克推进道路上的障碍(如炮兵,防御工事,步兵集团,桥梁和护卫车队等)。

Paratroopers were another type of air support, which could be used were key targets had to be quickly captured, not destroyed. One of their common tasks in Blitzkrieg was capturing key bridges, in order to prevent the enemy from destroying them, and allow the advancing tanks to reach them and rapidly cross without delay.

伞兵是另一种形式的空中支援,他能够快速占领指定目标而不是破坏。在闪电战中他们的常见任务是抢占重要桥梁,以防止敌人破坏他们,并使坦克能够不受拖延的快速抵达并通过桥梁。

◆Radio - while the French High Command in 1940 was not even equipped with radio, it was radio communications in each tank each aircraft and each unit which allowed the German commanders to control their forces so effectively, and to utilize their air support so destructively and efficiently. Radio allowed German Blitzkrieg commanders to rapidly advance with their forces, see the battlefield with their eyes, not just on the map, and achieve much greater control of the situation and much better use their forces. Radio also enabled the German senior commanders to efficiently control huge mobile forces, more than ever before in history, allowing large scale cooperation and effective unity of command.

◆无线电——当法国在1940年时甚至还没有装备无线电时,德国就已经在每辆坦克,每架飞机,甚至每个作战单位上都配备了无线电。这使得德国的指挥官们能够高效率地掌控他们的部队,并使得他们的空中力量更具效率和破坏性。无线电使得德国的闪电战指挥官们能够与他们的部队一起快速推进,并亲眼观察战场,充分掌握战场形势的瞬息万变从而更好地运用他们的部队,而不是站在地图前坐失良机。无线电也让德国的高级指挥官能够比历史上任何时候都有效地掌控庞大的机动部队,使大规模的协同作战和高效率的统一指挥成为可能。

◆Flexibility - the German armor commander didn't have to follow a particular road or path. Their tactical freedom, provided by their superior mobility and quick response air support, allowed them to rapidly advance along the path of least resistance, much like water do in a flood, or to produce one, with the superior firepower of their tank guns and air support. This also allowed them to press on with little casualties, allowing them to maintain their thrust and effectiveness and advance further.

◆灵活性——德国装甲指挥官不用去死搬命令按照特定的路线行军。他们高度的机动能力和反应快速的空中支援赋予他们足够的战术自由,这使得他们能够犹如洪水泻地般选择抵抗力量最薄弱的路线推进,或者通过他们强大的坦克炮火力和空中支援来打开一条通道。这同样能够使他们遭受尽量少的伤亡,从而保持他们高效迅猛的穿插并向更深处推进。

◆Initiative and surprise - the sheer speed and power of rapidly advancing forces and heavy bombardment in its territory, especially when it comes without warning, can easily shock every enemy. Persisting with that is even more devastating, and that's what the Germans did. They rapidly encircled massive enemy forces, cut supply lines, and made other large units collapse and lose their morale.

◆主动权和突然性——在没有任何预警的情况下,快速推进部队的惊人的速度和力量和对敌领土的狂轰滥炸能够轻易地使敌人陷于休克状态。持续的突然袭击会带来更大的毁灭性破坏,正如德国人在战争中做的那样。他们快速包围大规模的敌军,切断他们的补给线,使敌军瓦解和失去斗志。

◆Simplicity - there was nothing complex in Blitzkrieg. It was a simple tactic made possible thanks to revolutionary modern weapons which made this type of warfare possible - the tank, the aircraft, and the radio. As with many other weapons and tactics, it could be greatly intensified with quality, and indeed with Cavalry-spirit commanders like Guderian and Rommel, with highly trained or combat experienced soldiers, and with excellent weapons as the Panzer IV and the Stuka dive bomber, the Germans were able to achieve amazing victories with Blitzkrieg.

◆简单明了——闪电战没有任何复杂晦涩的东西。它是一个简单的战术,现代武器的革M——坦克,飞机,无线电,使得它的实行成为可能。正是由于其他武器和战术的融入,使它有了质的飞跃。也正是因为有了拥有骑士精神的指挥官像古德里安和隆美尔,有了经过严格训练拥有战斗经验的士兵,有了出色的武器如四号坦克和斯图卡俯冲轰炸机,德国才能够通过闪电战取得惊人的胜利。

Later during the war the Germans were eventually matched by equal armor commanders like Patton and Zhukov. Their tanks were outclassed by the Russian T-34 which was perhaps the best tank in World War 2. And the Stuka dive bomber was matched by superb tactical support aircraft like the Russian Il-2 Sturmovik which was the most armored aircraft in World War 2, and later by a new breed of American and British multi-role fighter-bombers.

在以后的战争中德国终于遇到了棋逢对手的装甲指挥官,例如巴顿和朱可夫。他们的坦克也在可能是二战中最好的坦克的苏联T-34面前相形见绌。斯图卡俯冲轰炸机也遇到了超级战术支援机,像二战中装甲防护最佳的伊尔-2对地攻击机,还有再往后的美英新型的多用途战斗轰炸机。

◆Air superiority - is a supporting element, but a critical one. If the enemy has it, Blitzkrieg becomes impossible, as Rommel and other German commanders found out later during the war.

◆空中优势——这个因素处于从属地位,但也是至关重要的。如果敌人拥有空中优势,那闪电战就不可能实行了。就如隆美尔和其他德国指挥官在战争后期所面对的局面。

◆Logistics - is another critical supporting element which the Germans neglected, and it was the element which eventually crippled their military. A relatively short-range and short-time Blitzkrieg in good weather, as the invasions of Poland, France, Yugoslavia and Greece were, is one thing, and the Germans excelled there. But when they invaded Russia in 1941, the logistical needs they knew before were dwarfed by Russia's huge distances, terribly bad roads, and extreme winter conditions. Instead of so many horses and not enough trucks, the German military greatly needed many tracked vehicles capable of keeping with the tanks, moving both infantry and supplies, but they had much too few of them. Air supply by a fleet of cargo planes could also be helpful, but the Germans lost many of them in their airborne invasion of Crete, and lost many more in an arrogant and futile attempt to air-supply a whole army encircled in Stalingrad instead of allowing it to retreat.

◆后勤——这是另一个关键的从属因素。德国正是由于忽视了这个因素,而最终使部队陷入瘫痪。德国人善于在相对较小的范围,较短的时间和良好的天气条件下发动闪电战,如入侵波兰,法国,南斯拉夫和希腊。但是当1941年他们进攻苏联时,苏联巨大的纵深,糟糕的道路情况和恶劣的天气使他们在后勤上的缺陷显露无遗。由于缺乏足够的卡车,德国人还在大量使用骡马作为运输工具,这使得他们的步兵和补给跟不上坦克的推进速度。运输机本来也能对部队的后勤保障起到帮助,但是在对克里特岛的空降作战中德国损失了很多运输机,后来为避免被围困在斯大林格勒整支部队投降而进行的自负且无益的空投援助的行动中更多的运输机白白损失。

除了传统的对行进中的部队的食物,水和彈藥的补给,坦克还需要大量的燃料和零部件。这个问题随着战争的进展不断加深,并使德国的装甲部队陷入瘫痪。德国后期的坦克,虎式和虎王重型坦克在技术上非常复杂,比早期的坦克需要更多的燃料。很多重型坦克的损失都是由于机械故障和燃料不足,而非敌人的炮火。所以闪电战需要的不只是坦克,还需要它们有极高的可靠性,足够长的行程,并且伴随有各种辅助卡车。德国忽视了战争华丽舞台背后所需要的幕后支持,因此遭受了惨重的惩罚。在战争后期苏联军队改进了他们的后勤补给系统使他们的坦克能够不停顿地连续推进数百英里,有时甚至能够在行进中加油,这当然要归功于他们车辆的技术上可靠和简洁。

Blitzkrieg in world World War 2

第二次世界大战中的闪电战

Blitzkrieg is the basis of modern warfare in the age of the tank, aircraft, and radio, simply because it makes the best military use of their natural advantages in speed and firepower. It obviously achieved the best results against a less modern or less prepared army, but it could also defeat equally equipped armies which used lesser tactics.

闪电战是现代战争在坦克,飞机和无线电时代的基础,因为它能够使这些武器在速度和火力上的优势得到最大的发挥。它是打败比自己落后或缺少准备的军队的最佳手段,它也可以打败和自己具有相同装备但是缺少战术的军队。

•In 1939 Blitzkrieg defeated the Polish army, which had obsolete Cavalry instead of tanks and an obsolete Air Force.

•1939年,闪电战击败了只装备有过时的骑兵和空军的波兰军队

•In 1940 it defeated the French army, which had the necessary weapons (tanks, aircraft, radio), but of lesser quality, and it didn't know how to use it because it totally neglected mobile warfare after World War 1 and didn't have fighting spirit either.

•1940年,击败法国军队。法国军队虽然装备有必要的武器(坦克,飞机,无线电),但是数量远远不足,部队也缺乏斗志,并且由于忽视了战争中机动性的重要而不会正确的使用这些装备。

•In 1941 it defeated the Yugoslav and Greek armies which had the fighting spirit but not the needed weapons for mobile warfare.

•1941年击败南斯拉夫和希腊军队。他们虽然有战斗精神但是缺乏机动作战需要的武器。

•In 1941 it also defeated the huge Russian army all the way to Moscow, but because of the logistic neglect it was defeated by Russia's endless size and extreme weather. The Russian army had great numbers of tanks and aircraft when the Germans attacked, but most of the tanks were obsolete, and the political mass murder of most senior officers by Stalin's brutal Communist regime before the war and the extreme rigidness it enforced on the surviving officers had paralyzing results. This rigidness also meant that the Russian Air Force totally neglected air superiority in favor of dedicating everything to tactical air support, but this resulted in its almost total destruction, on the ground and in the air. It took a long time and millions of casualties before Zhukov finally persuaded Stalin to permit reasonable tactical flexibility, in order to allow him, and a new breed of young and tough battle-hardened surviving commanders to fight properly, and by then they were also properly equipped with excellent new weapons like the T-34.

•在1941年,闪电战同样击溃了庞大的苏联军队直至莫斯科的门口,但是由于对后勤的忽视,最终被苏联无穷无尽的国土和恶劣的天气所击败。苏联军队在遭到德国攻击时有大量的坦克和飞机,但是大部分坦克已经过时。战前大量的高级军官死于斯大林残忍的GC党制度,并使幸存下来的将领都思维僵化。这种僵化也体现在苏联空军完全忽视了空中优势在战术上重要性,从而导致它几乎被全部摧毁在机场和空中。在经历了数以百万计的伤亡和长时间的游说后朱可夫终于说服斯大林允许合理的战术灵活性,以便使他和一支新生的,年轻的和经过严酷战争考验的而幸存下来的指挥官队伍能够正确地开展战斗,从那时开始他们也装备了杰出的新式武器,如T-34坦克。

•In North Africa, Erwin Rommel, which already excelled in the Blitzkrieg invasion of France in 1940, used the same tactics in the desert campaign, but he was crippled by lack of fuel and supplies, by superior enemy air power, and by having too few tanks.

•在北非,1940年就曾在闪电入侵法国中表现出色的隆美尔在沙漠战役中使用了同样的策略,但是燃油和补给的缺乏,敌人强大的空中优势和过少的坦克使他最终不得不面对失败。

•In 1944 in France, Patton demonstrated American-style Blitzkrieg, with levels of air support and mobile logistics beyond Guderian's wildest dreams.

•1944年在法国,巴顿向人们展示了美国式的闪电战,他所拥有的空中援助和机动后勤的级别是古德里安做梦都想像不到的。

•At the end of 1944, the Germans tried Blitzkrieg one last time, almost at the same place as they did in 1940, but this was just a shadow of their past Blitzkrieg. They had much less tanks, their formidable King Tiger tanks were very short on fuel, they had almost no air support, and they were totally dependent on bad weather to avoid being decimated by allied fighter-bombers. They advanced, but not significantly, and when the sky finally cleared they were smashed by allied fighter-bombers.

•在1944年末,德国尝试在几乎和1940年他们发动战争时相同的地方发动了最后一次闪电战,但这不过是他们过去闪电战的一个影子而已。他们没有足够的坦克,他们那令人畏惧的虎王坦克缺乏必要的燃油,他们几乎没有空中支援,他们只有完全指望通过坏天气来避免盟军战斗轰炸机的大屠杀。他们取得了一些进展,但是并不显著,当天空最终放晴时他们很快被盟军的战斗轰炸机打得粉碎。


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