德军中的苏联坦克!

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导读:德军中的苏联坦克!

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根据德国军的统计,苏军在苏德战争爆发的头2个月内损失了28000辆坦克中的14079辆。这其中有很多是因为缺乏弹药和油料或简单机械故障而被遗弃在战场上的。战争的初期,德军缴获可用的苏军坦克大概在1000辆左右,这其中包括了T-26,300-500辆BT,超过40辆的T-28和45辆的T-34和KV-1。可是因为当时相信战争很快就结束,德国人根本没有对这些战车有足够多地认识,德军零散的使用过,可被缴获的坦克经常因为很小的故障被再次遗弃。德军指挥部也没有统一调配过缴获的苏军坦克,维护和使用由前线部队自行解决,一般经过简单的处理以后再次返还给本部队继续使用。总之使用率依然很低,比如最先报告缴获俄军T-34的德军第1,8,11装甲师就没有使用T-34的记录。当然,这也有可能是部队隐瞒情况,任何一种缴获的敌方武器的使用记录都是非常重要的,很多士兵和军官害怕这样的文字任务而没有上报。

1941年年底,越来越重的损失让德军的自己的野战维修单位忙得不可开交,缴获到的苏军坦克很多被送往后方试验或者干脆直接回炉。但当时德军仍使用着约700辆的苏军坦克,其中主要是T-26,BT,T-60这样的轻型坦克。这些轻型坦克数量庞大,结构简单;而且在战场上更容易被击毁,获得所需要的备件。

1942年,德军自身的损失和缴获的苏军坦克高速增长着,同时德军的各级参谋部开始注意到应该尝试使用那些性能不错的苏军坦克。1941年年底,德国在拉脱维亚首都里加修建了一座专门用于维修和改装T-34的工厂。从42年初,德军开始陆续的在战场上试验性的装备缴获来的T-34和KV-1。比较著名的是42年3月,配属中央集团军群的第66特种试验装甲营(PzAbt zBV-66)这个单位第2连有许多 F, I 号 J, II 号 F2 (前装甲加强型) KV-1,KV-2 和T -34,先前准备将这个部队投入对马耳他岛的争夺,后来因为任务的放弃转交给了中央集团军群。 8月,这个单位的T-34被转交给了第12装甲师,这个装甲师使用T-34随后参加了解救“德米扬斯克”包围圈的行动。同年中,KV-1开始配发德军装甲师。第1,8,22装甲师先后获得了超过50辆的KV-1型坦克。

1943年起,德国的一些企业也开始投入改装和维护T-34的工作中,这其中先后包括了梅塞德斯、戴姆勒-奔驰,沃马格等大型企业。改进工作包括了加装III号和IV号坦克的炮塔,德式无线电及工具箱。

1943年春天,德军在哈尔科夫拖拉机工厂里一次缴获了超过50辆完好的T-34/76。与此同时,SS开始逐渐壮大,然而在装备上新成立的SS装甲掷弹兵师常常被国防军刁难,新装备总是被优先提供给了国防军陆军。拥有敏锐经济嗅觉的SS经济生产部门立刻接管了那里,25辆T-34被分配给了“帝国”装甲掷弹兵师;另外的22辆被分配给了“骷髅”装甲掷弹兵师的反坦克营(其实早在42年9月就已经有T-34在该部中服役)。后来,这里还修复过一批从其他地方运来的KV-1型坦克。同年夏天,“帝国师”第3反坦克营装备到了顶峰:33辆T-34及1辆装备着德军75毫米火炮的T-34型坦克。帝国师在7月4日的简报中报告使用着18辆可操纵的T-34坦克,另有9辆处于维修状态。

43年7月德国国防军南方集团军群使用的缴获苏军坦克包括:28辆T-34和1辆T-70.中央集团军群使用了22辆T-34,3辆T-70,3辆KV-1。库尔斯克战斗中,国防军第6装甲师第11装甲团在7月10日报告该团使用着4辆可操纵的T-34型坦克,第23装甲师第128反坦克营使用着5辆T-34。后来43年的比尔戈罗德市郊的战斗中,德军投入了一辆换装75毫米火炮的KV-1。

被缴获的T-34很多被运往法国荷兰等西部国家。用作在那里训练德军的实物教材。44年盟军在西线登陆后并没有和T-34有过交手。但是在“帝国”师中一直保留着几辆T-34弹药供给车,其中的一辆可能被英国或者波兰军队俘获。

美军曾经在1945年5月的时候从德军中缴获了一辆T-34/76 41型,到今天还陈列在美国阿伯丁坦克博物馆。之前4月的时候,美军占领克虏伯工厂发现了一辆KV-2型坦克。

1944年,随着德国人战线后撤,缴获的T-34的数量减少。但第23装甲师第128反坦克营这个时候装备着T-34和Su-85自行火炮。德军统帅部在44年12月的时候重新分配了39辆T-34,其中的29辆给了第1雪地猎兵师的152反坦克营, 该营使用T-34直到战争结束。

1944年底的时候,德军计划在波兰的克拉科夫也计划投入一个类似西线的第150特种坦克营,被德国人称为“美洲虎”中型坦克营。这个部队在布劳恩贝格组建,装备着缴获的T-34/85坦克,计划在苏军后方从事破坏和侦察活动。不过这个后来被编入党卫军第6装甲集团军,可能参加了45年初在匈牙利境内的军事行动。

45年一月,德军东线各部队使用的苏军坦克为49辆。45年4月最后一次报告中显示,东线德军依然使用者79辆缴获的苏军坦克。

要提的是,因为这些缴获的坦克非常容易遭到友军的袭击。德军必须要把这些缴获来的坦克再涂装上进行更改。比如使用RAL 7016号灰或者红褐色和深黄色(可是冬天,所有坦克只有白色的伪装涂装,这时的坦克更容易遭受误击);并尽可能大的在车体四周涂有万字或者铁十字标志,实在没有油漆的则用旗子放在显眼处以进行区别,因此缴获来的T-34大多数时间配属给装甲师的反坦克营;或者交给那些在后方担任反游击队的部队。43年起BT,T-26,BA-10这些老式坦克和装甲车被大量交给了维持后方秩序的SS警察部队(Ordnungspolizei)。43年11月-44年在北方集团军群的第8警察装甲连一直使用着一辆缴获的BT-7型坦克。中央集团军群的第9警察装甲连使用着1辆T-34和1辆T-26。44年3月起,在乌克兰的第5警察坦克连使用着5辆T-34,8月的时候他们被调往巴尔干半岛,直到战争结束,在巴尔干半岛的德军部队中有约74辆缴获的坦克(其中也包括早期法军和英军的)。

几种苏军装甲车辆在德军中的名字(德国人叫KV为KW)

BA-10 BAF 203(r)

T-70 Pz 743 (r)

T-26 Pz 738 (r)

T-28 Pz 746(r)

T-34 Pz 747 (r)

T-35 Pz.752 (r)

KV-1 Pz 753 (r)

KV-II Pz 754(r)

以下为外国网站原文(以下本想译一下,发现上贴实际上已经是基于此文的译作,因而不译了)

Soviet tanks in germans units

德军中的苏联坦克

Captured tanks in frontline units

前线单位缴获的坦克

According to German data of that locating in the divisions of RKKA before beginning the war more than of 28 000 tanks in two months of war to 22 August 1941 were lost more than 14 079 tanks. Substantial part from these machines was lost in the course it was combat or was destroyed during the retreat, but an enormous quantity of equipment was left in the parks being fully operational state, while on the way because of the shortage of fuel or it is left due to faults, many of which could be removed into the short time.

According to some datum in the initial period of war Germans captured in the working state from 900 to 1100 tanks T -26, 300-500 tanks BT, more than 40 tanks T-28 and more than 45 tanks T-34 and KV. The tanks seized in the working state were used by their taken subdivisions and usually served to the complete failure. Nevertheless, in 1941 the use of captured Soviet technology in Wehrmacht had very limited nature, which was caused from one side with the an even more sufficient staffing by the regular technique of German parts and the confidence in the fast end of war, - by the complexity of the identification of this mashines in the intensive fight. For example, first captured T-34, which entered into 1, 8, 11 Pz.Div. Germans so did not decide to use.

In addition to this the significant role played the unwillingness of the commanders of many German units to encounter with the routine of formulation and account on the seized captured tanks, that it does not make it possible now to determine accurately a quantity of used equipment. Considerably simpler it was use trophies without the calculation, and in the case of serious damages or breakdowns, and also absence of fuel or ammunition throw the seized machines, without troubling itself by what or formulation of the reports about the loss.

Like captured T-34, the seized in the working state heavy tanks KV were used in the German subdivisions since the beginning of the war. From the middle of 1942 some KV-1 those sent for the German factories, began to again cross to the front. KV-1 transferred mainly to 1, 8 and 22 Pz.Div. Official German sources give number of 50 KV's used in Wehrmacht.

To October 1941 in the German units were used about hundred of seized Soviet tanks, only completely proper machines arose into the system. However, the basic mass of the deserted technology remained in the fields it was combat it conducted the winter of 1941/42 years under the open sky because of the overloading of repair and evacuation units by the restoration of its own technology, after which it arrived into the unfitness and subsequently left for the melting. From the report bases in that period Wehrmacht obtained only several T-26, BT and T-60.

Losses at 1941 and beginning of 1942 with the incapacity of German plants to compensate losses draw more attention to restoration and use of captured technology. Beginning from end of 1941 seized T-34 they began to send to the repair plant in Riga for the restoration and the modernizations.

One of the best known unit in that period that had captured technology in arsenal of 2'nd company is formed on 30 May 1942 PzAbt zBV-66 that intended for the cancelled intrusion on Malta. This battalion consisted of many rare machines, such as PzKpfw I Ausf F, PzKpfw I Ausf J, PzKpfw II ausf F2 (?) with 80 mm front armor, tanks KV-1 and KV-2, and also T -34. T-34 (probably and KV tanks) were transmitted to the army group of “Center”; and reach 1 Ski Jager Division (another source of information say that these tanks reach 12 Pz. Div in August 1942 and according to some data they were used in combat under Dem'yansk).

A number of enterprises were occupied by restoration trophies increased since 1943, to the works were drawn plants Mercedes - Benz (Mrienfeld), Daimler - Benz (Berlin) and Wumag (Goerlitz). After the combat in the spring of 1943 for Kharkov and its repeated seizure, more than 50 completely proper T-34/76 dropped into the hands of the Germans (2 TK SS) mainly of release 1942/1943 from which 25 tanks was transferred to 2 Pz.Gr.Div. SS "Das Reich", and 22 tanks to 3 Pz.Gr.Div SS "Totenkopf".

Kharkov Tractor Plant proved to be under control of J-Staffel 2 SS Pz.Gr.Div "Das Reich" where was organized the repair unit Panzer-Werkstaff SS occupied practically only by restoration captured T-34 and KV.

In the summer of 1943 were organized entire units equipped with captured tanks, but the widest application was in parts of SS. 25 tanks T-34 of different production types (according to others data to 33) they became part of 3 Pz.Jg.Abt. 2 Pz.Gr.Div. SS "Das Reich".

In the composition of battalion T-34 served together with tanks Pz. Kpfw IV equipped with long-barrell 7,5 cm gun for the tasks of tank destroyers. According to the data on 4 July, 1943, into Pz.Jag.Abt. of 2 Pz. Gr. Div. SS "Das Reich" were 18 operational tanks T -34 and 9 more were located on the repair.

From June to August 1943 on captured T-34 in the 3 ss Pz. Abt. battled the well-known German tank ace Emil Seibold. It is assumed that of 69 victories recorded, in that period he destroyed 23 tanks. On 6 May 1945, in the course of the last ceremony of rewarding he was entrusted with "knights cross".

Captured T-34 in the period of combat near Kursk were used also in the Wehrmacht units. For example 11 Pz. Rgt. 6 Pz. Div., according to the data on 26 April 1943, had 1 tank T-34, and on 10 July 1943 - 4 tanks T-34. In the same period captured T-34 there were in Pz.Jg.Abt. 128 23 Pz.Div. The use of captured tanks in the battalions of tank destroyers was most justified, which made it possible to avoid losses from friendly fire, and the shortage of tank destroyers.

The only known case of replacing the regular armament with German one was recorded in 1943 in the environs of Belgorod. Tank KV-1 m.1942 was rearmed by German 7,5 cm gun KWK 40 instead of the regular ZiS-5. Besides this tank obtained commander's cupola from tank Pz - III/IV.

Certain quantity captured T -34 arrived also in France, where they were used for training purposes. In 1944 to allies to that landing to Normandy it was fighting with such machines. Documentary confirmation of this information is not encountered, but on the recollections of veterans were such cases. In the existing photographs from the veterans albums of shown two T -34; however, no confirmation that on the photographs precisely France can be found, it is not possible to determine this, also, according to surrounding nature and architecture. Das Reich division use a few turreteless T-34 in Normandie, classified as "Berge T-34", first saw in Normandie in july 1944. Probably three T-34 used by repair unit. One view of this vehicle in the book "La Massue" Didier Lodieu. On the picture T-34 in the Trun - Mont-Ormel area, captured by Poles or British troops.

In 1944 captured T-34 and SU-85 they warred in Rumania in composition of Pz. Jg. Abt 128 23 Pz. Div. Officially during December 1944 in the German parts were located 39 additional captured T-34, from which 29 machines were into 100 Ski Jager Division. (according to others data named 1 Ski Jager Division, where during March 1944 entered bulk of the seized Soviet tanks).

At the end of 1944 was created special unit "Jaguar" initially acted in the region of Krakow and had tasks the similar to tasks of 150 brigade used in the Ardennes. Staff of this unit is unknown, but in its composition there was the so-called medium company, equipped with tanks T-34/76 and T-34/85. Unit was formed in East Prussia (Brauneberg). At the end of 1944 Kommandoverband was moved in the composition of army group "South" and in the composition 6 TA SS participated in combat in the territory of Hungary during January 1945.

According to official data during January 1945 in the units were 49 tanks T-34 29 machines from which still belonged to 100 ski Jager Division.

Some quantity of heavy tanks KV-2 was sent for Germany for studies and demonstrations in the initial period of the war, where minimum one of them remained to the last stage of war. During April 1945 this tank protected Krupp's plant from the advance of American tanks. On the book "Die Entscheidungschlacht an rein und Ruhr" H.Euler mention one KV-1 captured US forces in 1945.

Soviet tanks in the police divisions

警察部队(原文为divisions可译为师,我认为还是译为部队好)中的苏联坦克

One of the basic problems with the use of captured Soviet tanks was the complexity of their identification by own forces, tanks differed from enemy technique only by painting and by symbolism were often destroyed in the fever of battle by the fire of their own artillery or tanks, which were being oriented in essence not on the signs, substituted to the armor and to painting, but on the silhouettes of machines.

For this very reason captured mechanics in general were used in the units of tank destroyers, acting in the depth of its orders supporting with their fire, which excluded the possibility of their destruction by "friendly" fire. The police parts, which acted in the depth of the occupied territory, where the captured technology was used for the fire support, were another place of the active application of a captured armament.

The absence of spare parts and ammunition, and also the swift delay of the constructions the seized in the initial stage of war technique from the requirements of those dictated by realities of war, led to the gradual disappearance of the growing antiquated trophies from the front parts and to their gradual reduction in the rear units. Meanwhile are encountered the photographs of different obsolete machines (BT, T -26, BA-10 and of others) the dated by second-half war beginning from 1943 and up to 1945. Bulk of these machines entered in essence into the composition of police parts (Ordnungspolizei).

As the minimum one tank BT-7 was located the consisting of 8 police tank company from November 1943 and to the end of 1944 of that entered into the composition of army group “North”. One T -34 and as the minimum one T -26 entered the consisting of 9 police tank company and performed in the army group “Center”. 12 (Reinforced) tank police company used several Soviet combat vehicles, including T -34, T -60, T -70, BA-10 and as the minimum one T -26. From 2 March of 1944. 5 tank police company had 2 platoons of 5 tanks T -34, these machines performed in the Ukraine, and beginning from the summer of 1944 in Italy.

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