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记者;

What is your strongest memory from the first flight of the F-35?


F-35首飞给您留下的最强烈的印象是什么?


比斯利答:

The thrust impressed me most. The first flight profile called for the F-35 to immediately go to 15,000 feet. I had to keep the speed at 225 knots during the climb since I had to keep the gear down, which limited the maximum speed.


给我印象最为深刻的是它的推力。首飞的预案要求F-35快速爬升到15,000英尺。由于在这个过程中我要保持起落架处于放下状态(译注:新机首次试飞为保险起见,都不收起落架),我不得不把速度限制在225节,这样一来就无法以最大速度爬升。


I used nose attitude instead of modulating engine thrust to control airspeed during the climb to 15,000 feet. In other words, I had to raise the nose to slow down the airplane. I took off and started pulling back on the stick. I had to keep pulling back to stop from accelerating over the 225-knot limit. So I reached a rather steep angle, about twenty-five degrees of pitch. The steep angle, witnessed by the crowds on the ground, highlighted the raw power I was experiencing in the cockpit. The thrust surprised me. Not in the sense of “Gee, how am I going to handle all of this power?” But more like, “Wow, this is more than I expected.”


在爬升至15,000英尺高度的过程中我用机首的高度代替发动机节流阀来控制飞行速度。换句话说,我用抬高机头来降低飞机的速度。在起飞后我开始往后拉操纵杆。我要一直拉住操纵杆来防止飞机的速度超过225节的限制。很快我就把机头拉到了一个非常高的角度,大约25度这样。这样一个大的角度,地面上的人员也都看到了,突出证实了我在驾驶舱里感受到的原生动力。这样的推力让我感到惊讶。这种惊讶不是说“咦,这么大的推力我要怎么用?”的不知所措,而更像是“哇,这推力比我想象的还要大”的那种惊喜。

记者;

What was your overall impression of the airplane after that flight?


你在首飞之后对这架飞机的整体印象如何?

比斯利答:

Overall, I was impressed by how well the entire first flight came together. I started the airplane, ran through all of our ground checks, taxied out to the end of the runway, and took off. The test team told me I taxied out to the end of the runway much faster than I did for any of the taxi tests. But I was ready to go and so was the airplane.


总的来说,我对这架飞机的综合表现是如此的优秀而留下深刻的印象。我启动飞机之后,按程序完成了所有地面检查内容,滑跑到跑道头的位置,然后起飞。测试小组告诉我说我滑跑到跑道头的过程要比我以前进行滑跑试验时快一些。我真的是想快一点飞起来,飞机也一样。

I was also pleased with how smoothly the airplane went through all the ground checks and how smoothly the airplane flew. As an example, the flap schedules on the original F-22 shook the Raptor at speeds above 200 knots. This objectionable buffet was addressed right away through a software change. Paul Metz [first pilot to fly the F-22] and I are the only two pilots who ever experienced that buffeting. I thought that I might experience some sort of buffeting with the first F-35, but I didn’t.


我也对飞机能够如此顺利地完成所有的地面检查以及飞机飞行时是如此的平稳感到满意。举个例子,F-22原始型号的襟翼在飞到200节左右时会跟约定般地使“猛禽”产生振动。通过飞控软件上的一个修改我们马上找到了产生这种令人讨厌的振动的成因。保罗·梅斯[第一名飞F-22的飞行员]和我是仅有的两名体验过这种振动的飞行员。我原本想我也会在F-35的首飞过程中遇到一定程度的振动,但实际上没有。


比斯利: We learned a lot from the F-22. Our engineers deserve a lot of credit. In fact, many of those who completed the checkout and testing of similar systems on the F-22 Raptor are performing the same work on the F-35. To name a few prominent examples: Kevin McTeague works on electrical systems; John Magbuhat works on flight controls; Paul Thoennes works on hydraulics; and Roy Schoberle from Pratt & Whitney works on the F135 engine. Many others with similar experience did the design integration work over the last several years. We also have some seasoned veterans involved in flight testing the new airplanes, which includes Mary Beth O’Loughlin as the test conductor for the first flight. We have a great team.


我们在F-22上学会了很多东西。我们的工程师们完全值得信赖。事实上,有许多完成了F-22“猛禽”战机检测模拟系统的工程师们正在F-35上从事相同的工作。我可以指名道姓地举出一些突出的例子:凯文·麦克提格负责电子系统;约翰·梅格巴黑特负责飞行控制;保罗·希尼斯负责液压系统;还有来自普·惠公司的负责F135发动机的罗伊·斯库伯勒。有许多有着类似工作经验的工程师们在过去的几年里从事着综合设计的工作。我们还有一些经验丰富的熟练人员参加了新飞机的飞行测试,其中包括了担任首飞任务指挥长的玛丽·贝丝·奥洛夫琳。我们有一支很了不起的团队。记者;

How has your impression of the F-35 changed in subsequent flights?

你对F-35在后来试飞中的印象又是如何?


比斯利答:

I continue to be impressed with the performance of the aircraft. The F-16s flying chase don’t have near the fuel capacity or payload capability as the F-35. The Lightning II does very well in comparison. For example, the F-35 often forces the chase aircraft into afterburner when it is in military power.

我对这架飞机的性能留下的深刻印象还在继续。伴随飞行F-16并没有F-35这样的载油能力和挂载能力。闪电II相比之下要优秀的多。举个例子,F-35在军用推力状态下经常迫使追击它的飞机要打开加力。


The airplane’s handling qualities continue to be very good throughout the flight envelope. When I raise the landing gear, the airplane flies very smoothly. The landing gear is sequenced, which is unique for a fighter. The nose gear comes up first, then the main gear follows. The gears drop down in reverse order. Another strong impression is that the airplane wants to fly a lot faster than we are allowed to fly at this point in the flight test program. Most of the time we fly at about thirty to forty percent of available thrust. This airplane can go out to high subsonic speeds very easily without using afterburner.


整个飞行包线内这架飞机的操纵品质也是相当的出色。当我收起起落架后,飞机的飞行变得非常平稳。起落架的收放是有先后顺序的,这对于一架战斗机来说也是独一无二的。机首的起落架首先收起,然后才是主起落架。起落架的放下则依照相反的顺序。另外一个深刻印象就是这架飞机总是要比我们在当前试飞进度所允许的飞行速度飞的快一点。在大多数的时间里我们都是在有效推力百分之三十到四十的状态下飞行。这架飞机能够很轻松地在不打开加力的状态下飞到高亚音速。


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