不灭的火炬 永久的丰碑

darkunicorn 收藏 0 42
导读:独立宣言: 在有关人类事务的发展过程中,当一个民族必须解除其和另一个民族之间的政治联 系,并在世界各国之间依照自然法则和上帝的意旨,接受独立和平等的地位时,出于人 类舆论的尊重,必须把他们不得不独立的原因予以宣布。 我们认为下面这些真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物者赋予他们若干不可剥 夺的权利,其中包括生命权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。为了保障这些权利,人类才在 他们之间建立政府,而政府之正当权力,是经被治理者的同意而产生的。当任何形式的 政府对这些目标具破坏作用
近期热点 换一换

独立宣言:



在有关人类事务的发展过程中,当一个民族必须解除其和另一个民族之间的政治联

系,并在世界各国之间依照自然法则和上帝的意旨,接受独立和平等的地位时,出于人

类舆论的尊重,必须把他们不得不独立的原因予以宣布。


我们认为下面这些真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物者赋予他们若干不可剥

夺的权利,其中包括生命权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。为了保障这些权利,人类才在

他们之间建立政府,而政府之正当权力,是经被治理者的同意而产生的。当任何形式的

政府对这些目标具破坏作用时,人民便有权力改变或废除它,以建立一个新的政府;其

赖以奠基的原则,其组织权力的方式,务使人民认为唯有这样才最可能获得他们的安全

和幸福。为了慎重起见,成立多年的政府,是不应当由于轻微和短暂的原因而予以变更

的。过去的一切经验也都说明,任何苦难,只要是尚能忍受,人类都宁愿容忍,而无意

为了本身的权益便废除他们久已习惯了的政府。但是,当追逐同一目标的一连串滥用职

权和强取豪夺发生,证明政府企图把人民置于专制统治之下时,那么人民就有权利,也

有义务推翻这个政府,并为他们未来的安全建立新的保障--这就是这些殖民地过去逆

来顺受的情况,也是它们现在不得不改变以前政府制度的原因。当今大不列颠国王的历

史,是接连不断的伤天害理和强取豪夺的历史,这些暴行的唯一目标,就是想在这些州

建立专制的暴政。为了证明所言属实,现把下列事实向公正的世界宣布--


他拒绝批准对公众利益最有益、最必要的法律。


他禁止他的总督们批准迫切而极为必要的法律,要不就把这些法律搁置起来暂不生

效,等待他的同意;而一旦这些法律被搁置起来,他对它们就完全置之不理。


他拒绝批准便利广大地区人民的其它法律,除非那些人民情愿放弃自己在立法机关

中的代表权;但这种权利对他们有无法估量的价值,而且只有暴君才畏惧这种权利。


他把各州立法团体召集到异乎寻常的、极为不便的、远离它们档案库的地方去开

会,唯一的目的是使他们疲于奔命,不得不顺从他的意旨。


他一再解散各州的议会,因为它们以无畏的坚毅态度反对他侵犯人民的权利。


他在解散各州议会之后,又长期拒绝另选新议会;但立法权是无法取消的,因此此

这项项权力仍由一般人民来行使。其实各州仍然处于危险的境地,既有外来侵略之患,

又有发生内乱之忧。


竭力抑制我们各州增加人口;为此目的,他阻挠外国人入籍法的通过,拒绝批准其

它鼓励外国人移居各州的法律,并提高分配新土地的条件。


他拒绝批准建立司法权力的法律,藉以阻挠司法工作的推行。


他把法官的任期、薪金数额和支付,完全置于他个人意志的支配之下。


他建立新官署,派遣大批官员,骚扰我们人民,并耗尽人民必要的生活物质。


他在和平时期,未经我们的立法机关同意,就在我们中间维持常备军。


他力图使军队独立于民政之外,并凌驾于民政之上。


他同某些人勾结起来把我们置于一种不适合我们的体制且不为我们的法律所承认的

管辖之下;他还批准那些人炮制的各种伪法案来达到以下目的:


在我们中间驻扎大批武装部队;


用假审讯来包庇他们,使他们杀害我们各州居民而仍然逍遥法外;


切断我们同世界各地的贸易;


未经我们同意便向我们强行征税;


在许多案件中剥夺我们享有陪审制的权益;


罗织罪名押送我们到海外去受审;


在一个邻省废除英国的自由法制,在那裹建立专制政府,并扩大该省的疆界,企图

把该省变成既是一个样板又是一个得心应手的工具,以便进而向这里的各殖民地推行同

样的极权统治;


取消我们的宪章,废除我们最宝贵的法律,并且根本上改变我们各州政府的形式;


中止我们自己的立法机关行使权力,宣称他们自己有权就一切事宜为我们制定法

律。


他宣布我们已不属他保护之列,并对我们们作战,从而放弃了在这里的政务。


他在我们的海域大肆掠夺,蹂躏我们沿海地区,焚烧我们的城镇,残害我们人民的

生命。


他此时正在运送大批外国佣兵来完成屠杀、破坏和肆虐的勾当,这种勾当早就开

始,其残酷卑劣甚至在最野蛮的时代都难以找到先例。他完全不配作为一个文明国家的

元首。


他在公海上俘虏我们的同胞,强迫他们拿起武器来反对自己的国家,成为残杀自己

亲人和朋友的刽子手,或是死于自己的亲人和朋友的手下。


他在我们中间煽动内乱,并且竭力挑唆那些残酷无情、没有开化的印第安人来杀掠

我们边疆的居民;而众所周知,印第安人的作战规律是不分男女老幼,一律格杀勿论

的。


在这些压迫的每一陷阶段中,我们都是用最谦卑的言辞请求改善;但屡次请求所得

到的答复是屡次遭受损害。一个君主,当他的品格已打上了暴君行为的烙印时,是不配

作自由人民的统治者的。


我们不是没有顾念我们英国的弟兄。我们时常提醒他们,他们的立法机关企图把无

理的管辖权横加到我们的头上。我们也曾把我们移民来这里和在这里定居的情形告诉他

们。我们曾经向他们天生的正义善感和雅量呼吁,我们恳求他们念在同种同宗的份上,

弃绝这些掠夺行为,以免影响彼此的关系和往来。但是他们对于这种正义和血缘的呼

声,也同样充耳不闻。因此,我们实在不得不宣布和他们脱离,并且以以对待世界上其

它民族一样的态度对待他们:和我们作战,就是敌人;和我们和好,就是朋友。


因此,我们,在大陆会议下集会的美利坚合众国代表,以各殖民地善良人民的名

义,非经他们授权,向全世界最崇高的正义呼吁,说明我们的严正意向,同时郑重宣

布;这些联合一致的殖民地从此是自由和独立的国家,并且按其权利也必须是自由和独

立的国家,它们取消一切对英国王室效忠的义务,它们和大不列颠国家之间的一切政治

关系从此全部断绝,而且必须断绝;作为自由独立的国家,它们完全有权宣战、缔和、

结盟、通商和采取独立国家有权采取的一切行动。


为了支持这篇宣言,我们坚决信赖上帝的庇佑,以我们的生命、我们的财产和我们

神圣的名誉,彼此宣誓。




THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE


In Congress, July 4, 1776,


THE UNANIMOUS DECLARATION OF THE THIRTEEN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to

dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to

assume among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to

which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect

to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes

which impel them to the separation.


We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,

that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that

among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.


That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving

their just powers from the consent of the governed.


That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it

is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new

Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its

powers in such form, as to the m shall seem most likely to effect their

Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long

established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and

accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to

suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing

the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and

usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce

them under absolute Des potism, it is their right, it is their duty, to

throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future

security.


Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the

necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.

The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated

injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of

an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted

to a candid world.


He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the

public good.


He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing

importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be

obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.


He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts

of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation

in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants

only.


He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable,

and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole

purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.


He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly

firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.


He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to

be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have

returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in

the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and

convulsions within.


He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that

purpose obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to

pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions

of new Appropriations of Lands .


He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to

Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.


He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their

offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.


He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of

Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance.


He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent

of our legislatures.


He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the

Civil power.


He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our

constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their

Acts of pretended Legislation:


For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:


For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which

they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:


For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:


For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:


For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:


For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:


For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province,

establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries

so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the

same absolute rule into t hese Colonies:


For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and

altering fundamentally the forms of our Governments:


For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with

power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.


He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and

waging War against us.


He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and

destroyed the Lives of our people.


He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to

compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with

circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous

ages, and totally unworthy the H ead of a civilized nation.


He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to

bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends

and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.


He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to

bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages,

whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages,

sexes and conditions.


In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the

most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by

repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which

may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.


Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have

warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an

unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the

circumstances of our emigration and sett lement here. We have appealed to

their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties

of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably

interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf t o

the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in

the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the

rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.


We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in

General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for

the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the

good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these

United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States;

that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that

all political connection between them and the State of Great Bri tain, is

and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States,

they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances,

establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent

States may of right do. An d for the support of this Declaration, with a

firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to

each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.


JOHN HANCOCK, President


Attested, CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary


New Hampshire: JOSIAH BARTLETT, WILLIAM WHIPPLE, MATTHEW THORNTON


Massachusetts-Bay: SAMUEL ADAMS, JOHN ADAMS, ROBERT TREAT PAINE, ELBRIDGE

GERRY


Rhode Island: STEPHEN HOPKINS, WILLIAM ELLERY


Connecticut: ROGER SHERMAN, SAMUEL HUNTINGTON, WILLIAM WILLIAMS, OLIVER

WOLCOTT


Georgia: BUTTON GWINNETT, LYMAN HALL, GEO. WALTON


Maryland: SAMUEL CHASE, WILLIAM PACA, THOMAS STONE, CHARLES CARROLL OF

CARROLLTON


Virginia: GEORGE WYTHE, RICHARD HENRY LEE, THOMAS JEFFERSON, BENJAMIN

HARRISON, THOMAS NELSON, JR., FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT LEE, CARTER BRAXTON.


New York: WILLIAM FLOYD, PHILIP LIVINGSTON, FRANCIS LEWIS, LEWIS MORRIS


Pennsylvania: ROBERT MORRIS, BENJAMIN RUSH, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, JOHN MORTON,

GEORGE CLYMER, JAMES SMITH, GEORGE TAYLOR, JAMES WILSON, GEORGE ROSS


Delaware: CAESAR RODNEY, GEORGE READ, THOMAS M'KEAN


North Carolina: WILLIAM HOOPER, JOSEPH HEWES, JOHN PENN


South Carolina: EDWARD RUTLEDGE, THOMAS HEYWARD, JR., THOMAS LYNCH, JR.,

ARTHUR MIDDLETON


New Jersey: RICHARD STOCKTON, JOHN WITHERSPOON, FRANCIS HOPKINS, JOHN HART,

ABRAHAM CLARK


Pennsylvania: Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John

Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George

Ross


Delaware: Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean


Maryland: Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of

Carrollton


Virginia: George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin

Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton


North Carolina: William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn


South Carolina: Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch,

Jr., Arthur Middleton





0
回复主贴
聚焦 国际 历史 社会 军事 精选
0条评论
点击加载更多

发表评论

更多精彩内容

热门话题

更多

经典聚焦

更多
发帖 向上 向下