设计专业英文论文

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Since 1845 designing has become a profession in its own right. Gradually at first, but then more quickly (especially as Japan emerged in the 1960s as a trading competitors of formidable ingenuity), governments and large corporations became convinced that design was “a good thing”. Design was seen to have two separate but related functions: it could be used strategically by a corporation to help plan its manufacturing and shape its marketing; and it had a more obvious role in making individual products attractive to consumers.

Designing is not a new activity. All ascendant civilizations have used it. The essential shape, form and structure of many artefacts, such as contains, tools, clothes and decorations, were fixed ten, twenty or even one hundred generations ago.

Even the professionalization of design is not “new”. People have long specialized as potters or engineers, weavers or masons, and they often designed what they made. Moreover, old industries, such as textiles and pottery differentiated between designers and makers——those who designed textiles in the 14th century were paid more than those who wore them.


Designers do not manufacture things. They think, they analyze, they may model or draw, and they specify. Some designers become involved in making their own prototypes. All good designers ask questions of their client and spend time helping the client to clarify what he or she really wants. Designing is about planning and making ideas explicit: if the product is to be made to the designer’s specifications, then the designer must ensure that the factory has the tools and the intelligence and that each element specified is practicable. On complex jobs several product engineers will be involved, today with computer-aided software packages, to help to realize a design precisely. The greatest difference between the designer and the single independent craftsperson is that the craftsperson does not have the problem of communicating his or her intentions to others for translation into objects. The designer, however, must make his or her intentions explicit——communication is at the heart of industrial design.

Since 1945 designing has become a profession in its own right.gradually at first,but then more quickly(especilly as Japan emerge in the 1960s as a trading competitor of formidable ingenuity),government and large corporations became convinced that design was “a good thing ”,Manufacturing and shape its mareting;and it had a more obvious role in marking indivual products atractive to consumers. Designing is not a new activity .All ascendant civilizations have used it.The essential shape, form and structure of many artefacts,such as containers,tools ,clother and decorations,were fixed ten,twenty or even one hundred generations ago.

Even the professionalization of design is not “new”.pepole have long specialized as potters or engineers ,weavers or masons, and they often designed what they made .Moreover, old industies,such as texitiles and pottery,differentiaied

Between designers and makers -------those who designed textiles in the 14th century were paid more than those who wore them.

Designers do not manufacture things .they think, they analyse ,they may model or draw,and they specify.Some designers become involved in making their own prototypes.All good designers ask questions of their client and spend time helping the client to clarify what he or she really wants.Designing is about planning and making ideas explicit: If the product is to be made to designer's specifications ,then the designer must ensure that the factory has the tools and the intelligence and that each element specified is practicable .on complex jobs several product engineers will be involved, today with computer-aided software packages,to help to realize a design precisely .The greatest difference between the designer and the single independent craftsperson is that the craftsperson does not have the problem of communicating his or her intenrions to others for translation into objects.The designer,however,must make his or her intentions explicit________communication is at the heart of industrial design.

Some have suggested that designers differ from engineers in that an engineer, although he or she might proceed intuitively , prefers to test and test whereas an industrial designer is entirely happy with intuitive judgments . But , unlike an engineer, a designer is not responsible for the structural failure of the product. OR , to put the matter more graphically, in 1949 one of the most beautiful aircraft ever designed flew for the first time——the de Havilland Comet, the world’s first jet airliner. Stylistically it looked right at the time but in a cruel reversal of the designerly homily that “if it looks right, it is right”, it began crashing in service(1953-1954). To modern eyes, the first Comets do not look right——they have square windows, and square holes are fatal design features in pressurized hulls because stress builds up at the corners, cracks occur and catastrophe follows.

The trend that began in the USA between the two World Wars, for designers to offer their services to industry as outside consultants became a flood in Western Europe, Scandinavia and the USA after 1945. Since the early 1950s, the activity of designing has been the subject of systematic and scientific analysis, it has been codified into set procedures, and it has become institutionalized by manufacturing corporation (Philips, Olivetti and IBM, for example ) as part of the overall identity of the company. Designing the way a company looks and presents itself, and giving a “family” look to the design of the company’s products, is an intricate and serious business. Designers visualize a company’s ideology and their visualizations communicate that ideology to the world. Designer provides the heraldry for the corporate baronage.

But design has not been thoroughly institutionalized. Design has also been claimed as art. Or, as Ettore Sottsass(Italy, b.1917), a designer of enormous influence, has said:” To me design…is a way of discussing life. It is a way of discussing society, politics, eroticism, food and even design. At the end, it is a way of building up a possible figurative utopia or metaphor about life. Certainly to me design is not restricted to the necessity of giving form to a more or less stupid product for a more or less sophisticated industry”.

This is not to imply that only design-engineers have responsibility for malfunction. Designers have a share of responsibility, especially in the design of the “human/machine interface”——can this machine to use effortlessly? The disciplines of ergonomics and product semantics are the disciplines of the designer’s responsibility to the user.

The design-to –manufacture-to sales-to-user process is a continuum. Between “a designer” and “a production line” there are many interpreters——artisans, craftspeople, product engineers and materials specialists, These individuals (and their computers), together with other specialists such as marketing experts, exist to get an idea into reality and also to filter out as many uncertainties as possible before a design goes into production. Each person contributes to a design and although a designer may provide an important stylistic signature it is important not confuse the idea of “the designer”, with that of “the line artist”.

Many modern designs, especially, if we consider domestic consumer goods, office equipment, power tools, automobiles and aircraft, are not the fruits of one individual’s mind, even if ——for reasons discussed below——it can be beneficial from a marketing point of view to play up a single designer’s name as a signature that gives a product a provenance in the same way that painter signs his or her canvas . In relatively simple, fabricated non-mechanical objects, such as printed textiles or table ware, or furniture, a single designer an claim responsibility for the design of the whole product. However, even here, it is possible that others will interpret the designer’s design so that it can be manufactured more easily.

The first generation of modern designers who came to maturity in the late 1930s in the USA saw themselves as capable of turning a hand to anything, irrespective of whether it was a casing for a locomotive or a box to all iced cake.

A fine example of this breed of “designer as stylist” is Raymond Loewy(1893-1986).Born in France, in 1919, he emigrated to the USA, where he began as a fashion illustrator before, in the late 1920, becoming a pioneer of the putative industrial design profession. The key characteristic of the profession in its modern form was the emergence of the designer as a freelancer and then as a consultant with his or her own studio staffed with assistants.

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