国际主流媒体:中国J11B--寂静军事革命的预兆

2006年11月5日9时17分03秒


道格拉斯.巴里


中国的歼11B正处在一个关键时期,即为其"国产化"版的苏-27\外界称为歼11B整合新的推进系统、雷达与武器系统.这些努力象征着北京正在努力发展其航空航天工业以适应21世纪的新军事变革.如果研制歼11B的计划获得成功,将是中国国防工业乃至解放军空军具备前所未有能力的一个标志.


中国军方正在重新调整数量和质量的平衡,并认为后者将是获得区域范围内军事优势和相关产业优势的保证.在此同时,北京和莫斯科之间的关系将发生微妙的转变,中国也将由此对自身的能力变得更加自信.


除了歼11B,中国的军事工业也开始生产各种精确制导武器并由此制定了新的战术和战略,此外,外界关注的内容还包括中国的高精度卫星导航系统(北斗系统)和各种无人(机)平台.发展歼11B计划还可以为在解放军空军服役的苏27系列飞机提供性能改进.


10月31日开始至11月5日在中国举行的航展上,第一次出现了太行发动机,这种涡扇发动机可以作为苏27系列飞机的动力,它也简称为WS10A.可能有几架歼11B正在进行测试,其中包括至少一架已经安装了一台WS10A发动机.


北京和莫斯科首次达成协议向中国出售苏27是在1991年,1996年又签订了按照许可证在本土生产的合同.这不但提供了中国先进的战斗机同时也提升了中国的军工制造业.第一架本土组装的歼11A已于1998年完成.在歼11A上仍然安装了俄罗斯发动机,雷达和武器装备.


太行发动机的研制已进行了近20年,一位资深的中国航空发动机官员.他坦承这个计划很有挑战性,"我们战胜了研制发动机的难关".参加航展的行政官员对歼11B计划保持沉没.官方说法只有:太行和AL-31是同级别的发动机,他们在技术上是同一代"<歼11B计划中还包括整合自主开发的平面缝隙阵脉冲多普勒雷达替换俄罗斯N001卡塞格伦雷达,至少有两个版本.一架被认为是歼11B的飞机似乎显示飞机装有不同的雷达罩,不同于基本型号的苏恺二十七.由于提供了更大的有效空间,它的功率应该比N001雷达更大.


与歼11B配套的项目还有洛阳PL-12主动雷达导引的中程空空导弹.而中国空军的苏27已经装备了俄罗斯的R77,PL-12有着比出口型R77作战使用范围.不过该公司的官员也避开了讨论PL-12的话题.PL-12发展的最后阶段的的试射看来已经成功完成,随着导弹至少近入服务.它也被用于歼八II系列飞机的改进,成都的歼10已经能够挂载PL12.


PL-12也得益于俄罗斯技术,包括莫斯科提供的惯性制导系统和导引头.AGAT 9B-1103M主动雷达导引头的一个改型是PL12的备选方案.这是R-77导引头的早期型号,但似乎已卖给中国.


解放军空军目前拥有的两种主动中程空空弹组合,除了苏-27月R-77组合,成功整合了PL-12的歼11B将提供解放军空军一种更有力的空优战机.

PL-12



中国正在填补其相关战术武器方面的空白并加强这种能力以支持出口,其作战飞机将可挂载精确制导武器.航展展出了数套前所未有的空射战术武器系统.洛阳展出了雷霆-2激光制导炸弹,与雷石-6精确制导滑翔炸弹摆放在一起.中国航天科技集团披露了飞腾1和飞腾3号卫星制导武器家族.两者都是出口产品,意在配合FC-1轻型战斗机,向包括巴基斯坦这样有需求的国家出口.


与此同时,中国航天科技工业公司(集团公司)展出了C―704反舰导弹,与C-802kd空地导弹(C802反舰导弹的另一个版本)一起展出.


洛阳的一位官员说,"雷霆-2已经在中国空军服役了三年多",与俄罗斯500公斤级(1100磅)KAB家族作用类似.这位官员认为,激光制导炸弹射程可达20公里,平均精度大约2米[英文如此](小于6.5英尺).


雷石6实际上是一个系列计划的一部分.这位官员说:"大约12枚"LS-6的发射试验已经用沈阳歼八II飞机进行了测试.整个计划在2003年开始,现已测试完毕.


雷石6和雷霆2


他指出这是给巴基斯坦订购的成都JF17配套的武器,采用惯性制导和卫星制导.这位官员说,这些武器将可利用三种不同的系统--美国的GPS、俄罗斯的GLONASS和中国自己的北斗导航系统.北斗系统的架构最终设想是用5颗地球同步轨道卫星和最多30个非地理平台.


500公斤级LS-6中高空发射时的最大射程有60公里.此外1000公斤级的炸弹需要更大的弹翼,和250公斤级只需加套件即可而不需要装弹翼.还有一个是正在研究激光导引.


展出的制导炸弹包括250公斤级和500公斤级.飞腾一号外形类似美国的联合直接攻击弹药.公司的人员说该弹从2001年开始研制.在西安歼轰七上试射时射程为18KM,射程主要与发射高度和飞机速度有关,精度小于30米.


中国航天科工集团的下属单位,精密机械进出口公司负责C704项目,至少有一小批的反舰导弹已经提供.整体与洪都的jj/tl-6反舰导弹在尺寸和性能两方面都很相似.展方提供的数据表明C―704是一种单脉冲雷达制导导弹,最大射程35公里.


该公司还展出了C802反舰导弹的进一步改进型号.即C-802kd空地弹,能够打击停泊在港口的舰船或陆地目标.打击陆上目标需要更高分辨率的雷达导引头.


对应于KD88的一种采用光电制导方式的C-802导弹改型正在开发中.


中俄关系发生变化的另一个事件是关于把俄罗斯发动机装备于成都FC-1轻型战斗机.该飞机由中国和巴基斯坦联合开发,有关发动机项目的谈判仍然需要莫斯科的同意,基于政治因素考虑,俄罗斯政府尚未批准这个协议,有人认为,这是俄罗斯避免这个协议危及其对印度的军售.



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Chinese J-11B Presages Quiet Military Revolution

By Douglas Barrie

11/05/2006 09:17:03 PM


POWER PLAY


China is in the midst of a critical period of testing an "indigenous" version of the Russian Su-27 Flanker, known as the J-11B, with propulsion, radar and weapons system integration underway.


The effort is emblematic of Beijing's efforts to recast its capabilities for the 21st century as its military and associated defense-aerospace sector undergoes its own revolution in military affairs.


The development of the J-11B, if successful, will mark a notable change in capability--not only for key elements of the country's defense industrial base, but also for the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).


The Chinese military is recalibrating the balance of quantity and quality in favor of the latter, as a guarantor of a decisive military edge and the ability to project power regionally. At the same time, the nature of the relationship between Beijing and Moscow may be subtly changing, reflecting China's growing confidence in its own capabilities. 5W


Alongside key elements on the J-11B, Chinese industry is beginning to produce a gamut of capable guided weapons, both tactical and strategic, including satellite-guided precision systems. The emergence of unmanned platforms is also gaining the attention of Beijing.


The nationally developed systems now in various stages of the J-11B test program potentially provide performance improvements over the various Su-27 models now in PLAAF service.


Air Show China, held here Oct. 31-Nov. 5, included the first official detail about the Shenyang Tai Hang engine. This turbofan powerplant is being developed for the Flanker, and is also sometimes referred to as the WS-10A. A handful of J-11B airframes are now likely being used for development testing, including at least one J-11B engine-integration aircraft.


Beijing and Moscow first agreed on the Flanker sale in 1991, with a license production contract signed in 1996. The Flanker has given China its most capable fighter aircraft while also providing a vehicle for its industry to gain knowledge of fourth-generation fighter manufacturing. The first kit-built J-11A was completed in 1998. The J-11A still uses Russian engines, radar and weaponry.


Design and development of the Tai Hang has been underway for nearly two decades, says one senior Chinese aero-engine executive. He admits the program has proved challenging: "We hit difficulties in developing the engine."


Chinese industry executives attending the show remain reticent to discuss the J-11B program. The executive would say only that the Tai Hang has "similar applications to the Al-31 [the present Su-27 engine]. It's of a similar thrust and is of the same technology generation." The J-11B program also includes the integration of Chinese-developed planar array pulse-Doppler radar replacing the Russian N-001 cassegrain radar, at least two versions of which are fielded by the PLAAF. An image of a J-11B, still in its primer (see top photo on p. 27), appears to show the aircraft fitted with a different radome to the basic Su-27. Given the available space for a flat-plate antenna, this would offer a performance improvement over the N-0001.


Also associated with the J-11B is the Luoyang PL-12 active radar-guided medium-range air-to-air missile. While the Chinese air force already has the Russian R-77 (AA-12 Adder) in service with the Su-27, the PL-12 offers a big performance increase over the present export standard of the Vympel R-77. Officials from the company were unable to discuss the PL-12 project. ]E ^#S*LFD

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The initial development test-firing program for the overall PL-12 program now appears complete, with the missile at least close to service entry. It was integrated first on the J-8II for the development program. Trials of the PL-12 on the Chengdu J-10 also have been carried out.


The PL-12 does benefit from Russian technology, with the seeker and inertial guidance system provided by Moscow. A variant of the Agat 9B-1103M radar seeker is the most likely candidate for the missile. This seeker was intended initially for an improved version of the R-77, but appears to have been sold to China first.


The PLAAF currently has the capability for two-target engagement using the Su-27, R-77 combination. Successful integration of the PL-12 on the J-11B would likely provide a genuine multitarget capability and give the PLAAF a more capable air superiority aircraft. 


The country is also moving to fill gaps in its tactical weapons capability, and to bolster its ability to support combat aircraft export proposals with credible guided-weapons packages. The show included the presentation of several previously unseen air-launched tactical systems. Luoyang showed the LT-2 laser-guided bomb, along with the LS-6 precision-guided glide bomb (middle photo). Rival China Aerospace and Technology Corp. unveiled its FT-1 and FT-3 satellite-guided weapons family. Both are aimed at potential exports of the FC-1 light fighter, including Pakistan, and likely national requirements.


Meanwhile, China Aerospace Science and Industry Corp. (Casic) showed the C-704 antiship missile (bottom photo), along with the C-802KD air-to-surface version of the C-802 antiship weapon.


The LT-2 has been in service with the Chinese air force "for more than three years," says a Luoyang executive. The 500-kg.-class (1,100-lb.) weapon resembles the Russian KAB family. The official suggested that the laser-guided bomb has a range of up to 20 km. (12.4 mi.) from high altitude, with an average accuracy of about 2 meters (6.5 ft.).


The LS-6 appears, in effect, a successor system, with a family of weapons planned. The official says "about a dozen" launch tests of the LS-6 precision bomb kit have been carried out using a Shenyang J-8II as the test aircraft. The program was begun in 2003, with testing now complete.



He identifies the JF-17--the Pakistan air force designation for the Chengdu FC-1 now in development--as the next intended aircraft for integration of the weapon. Guidance is provided by an inertial package coupled with satellite navigation. The official says the weapons family will be capable of using three systems--the U.S. GPS, the Russian Glonass and China's own Beidou system. The architecture for this system eventually foresees using five satellites in geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and up to 30 non-GEO platforms.


The 500-kg. LS-6 has a maximum launch range of 60 km. from medium altitude. A 1,000-kg. kit has also been considered, although this requires a larger wing. A 250-kg. variant is in the pipeline as well. Also under study is the addition of a laser seeker.


The two weapons shown by Casic cover the 250-kg. and 500-kg. class. The FT-1 bears a resemblance to the U.S. Joint Direct Attack Munition. Development began in 2001, according to a company executive. Tests have been carried out from a Xian JH-7. Range of the FT-1 is given as up to 18 km., depending on the release altitude and aircraft speed, with an accuracy of "30 meters, or less." Casic subsidiary China National Precision Machinery Import & Export Corp. is responsible for the C-704. At least a small batch of the antiship missile has been



The design is strongly reminiscent of the Hongdu JJ/TL-6 antiship missile, although dimensions and performance figures for the two vary slightly. Data provided for the C-704 give the monopulse active-radar-guided missile a maximum engagement range of 35 km.


The company is also offering a further variant of its C-802 antiship missile. The air-launched C-802KD is claimed to be capable of engaging ships in harbor or some fixed land targets. Given that the missile is fitted with a radar seeker only, land targets would need to provide a high radar contrast.


An electro-optically guided medium-size air-launched weapon in a similar class to the C-802 is under development in China. This program almost certainly corresponds to the KD-88 designation.


The first indications of a measured shift in Sino-Russian relations could be detected in the outcome of the ongoing "push and shove" between Beijing and Moscow over the provision of a Russian engine for the FC-1 light fighter. The aircraft is a joint development between China and Pakistan.


Chinese and Russian aerospace executives are maintaining China's FC-1 light fighter will be provided to Pakistan with a Russian engine, though this is still pending political approval from Moscow. The Russian government has yet to approve the release, with suggestions that Moscow might nix a deal to avoid jeopardizing sales to India.


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