规范和技术文件翻译指南

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导读:规范和技术文件翻译指南

第 1 章 通 则


1.1 目的

1.1.1本指南的主要目的是在于提高规范与技术文件的中文译 成英文 ( 中译英 ) 和英文译成中文 ( 英译中 ) 的翻译质量。

1.1.2 通过本指南的应用, 力求在中国船级社 (CCS) 内逐步形成 CCS 规范与技术文件的统一译法, 避免在译文中造成不必要的误解。

1.2 适用范围

1.2.1 本指南所举例的英文基本用词、用语和有关表达方式, 适用于 CCS 规范和技术文件的中译英。

1.2.2本指南所举例的国际海事组织 (IMO) 和国际船级社协会 (IACS) 文件中有关主要表达式的英译中, 适用于IMO/IACS 文件的翻译。

1.2.3本指南中所述的规范包括 CCS 编写的规范和指南, 技术文件包括 IMO/IACS 文件及其他有关技术文件。

1.2.4本指南也可供有关单位翻译国际海事技术文件作参考。


1.3基本要求

1.3.1应在理解原文的基础上进行翻译, 力求忠实原文。翻译中如遇到新技术或第一次出现的专业术语不易理解时, 可在该译文后加注原文为"(...)"。

1.3.2译文还应符合中、英文的基本语法和习惯用法, 做到文字通顺, 并尽量采用已经惯用的译法以及专业术语。

1.3.3翻译工作开始以前, 翻译人员应做好有关方面的准备工作, 包括了解原文的基本内容、收集有关资料、查找原文出处、阅读相关的专业文献等。

1.3.4 翻译过程中, 翻译人员对本人不熟悉的或专业性特别强的内容应及时与有关专业人员沟通。

1.3.5 无论是翻译人员, 还是审核人员, 都应对整篇译文进行认真仔细的校对, 避免漏译、误译, 务求全文的译法统一, 确保译文质量。














第 2 章 规范的翻译

2.1 一般规定

2.1.1 本章要求适用于 CCS 编写的各类规范、指南等 ( 简称 "规 范") 的中译英。除非另有说明, 本章要求也适用于 CCS 被授权编写的 法定的规则、导则等 ( 简称 "法规") 的中译英。

2.1.2 中译英时, 首先应查对规范条文的来源, 尽可能采用或参照原文进行翻译。如拟翻译的内容无原有文本作参考, 则应同有关专业人员沟通, 确保译文的正确性。

2.2 规范名称与篇章节的翻译

2.2.1 规范名称

(1) 规范等应译成:

规范 Rules

指南 Guidance Notes

(2) 法规等应译成:

法定规则 Statutory Regulations

导则 Guidelines

(3) 规范的名称用于书名时, 所有字母应大写:

示例 :《海船法定检验技术规则》

TECHNICAL REGULATIONS FOR THE STATUTORY SURVEY OF SEA-GOING SHIP

《海上拖航指南》

GUIDANCE NOTES FOR TOWAGE AT SEA

(4)规范等名称在条款中被引用时,则其每个单词的首字母应大写, 但介词和连接词除外:

例 1: 凡欲取得或保持本社船级的散装运输危险液体化学品货物的船舶, 除应满足本规范的要求外, 还应满足本社《钢质海船入级与建造规范》的有关要求。

For those ships carrying dangerous liquid chemicals in bulk which are intended to be classed with the Society or to maintain the classification,in addition to the Rules,the requirements of the Rules and Regulations for the Construction and Classification of Sea-going Steel ships of the Society are to be complied with.

2.2.2 总则与篇章节的翻译


篇、章、节的编号及名称

(1) 总则、通则、一般规定等应译成:

总则 General

通则 General Provisions

一般规定 General Requirements

一般要求 General Requirements

(2) 篇、章、节等的译法以及编排格式

① 篇、章、节等应译成 :

篇 PART

章 Chapter

节 Section

② 篇、章、节的编号及名称

(a)篇的编号应译成英文,且字母全部大写,章和节的编号仍采用阿拉伯数字。

(b)篇、章、节的名称应全部大写。

③ 在规范中应用条款时,应将

本篇 译成 This PART

本章 译成 this Chapter

本节 译成 this Section

④ 规范的编排格式,按中文的编排格式翻译。


2.3 助动词与语态

2.3.1 助动词

(1)"法规"中的"应",译成"shall";

"规范"中的"应",译成 "is(are) to"。

例1: (法规) 系统装船后应进行试验,试验方法应取得主管机关的同意。

On completion of installation on board,the system shall be tested according to the procedure approved by the Administration.

例2: (规范) 系统装船后应进行试验,试验方法应取得本社同意。

On completion of installation on board,the system is to be tested according to the procedure approved by the Society.

(2) 规范中的"必须"译成 "must","严禁"一般译成"to be prohibited"

例 1:客船每周应举行1次弃船演习和消防演习。每次演习中不必全体船员都参与,但是每一船员都必须按要求每月参加1次弃船和消防演习。

On passenger ships,an abandon ship drill and fire drill shall take place weekly. The entire crew need not be involved in every drill,but each crew member must participate in an abandon ship drill and a fire drill each month as required.

例 2: 除了表示船舶、飞机或人员遇险外,严禁使用国际遇险信号以及任何与国际遇险信号可能相混的信号。

The use of an international distress signal, except for the purpose of indicating that a ship, aircraft or person is in distress, and the use of any signal which may be confused with an international distress signal, are prohibited.


(3) 规范中的"建议",一般译成"it is recommended that ..."

例 1:建议阳极尽可能不装在高强度钢纵骨的面板上。

It is recommended that anodes be not fitted to face plates of higher tensile steel longitudinals.

(4) 规范中的"允许"译成"it is allowed (permitted)",含有本社或验船师"允许"之意的"可以"应译成"may"(而不是"can")。

例 1: 钢质船上的上层建筑、甲板室、舱口盖、舷梯等或局部部件允许使用铝合金材料等效代替本规范要求的船体结构钢。

The use of aluminum alloy is permitted for superstructures, deckhouses, hatch covers, accommodation ladders, etc. or other local components based on equivalent strength instead of hull structural steel as required by the Rules.

例 2: 露天干舷甲板以及上层建筑甲板和第一层甲板室甲板的舷墙或栏杆的高度应不小于1.0m 。当此高度影响船舶正常营运时,经本社同意可予以适当降低。但当将甲板设计成装运木材时,其舷墙高度应至少为1.0m。

Bulwarks or guardrails on the exposed freeboard and superstructure decks and first tier deckhouse deck are to be not less 1.0 m in height above such decks. With the consent of Society, the height may be suitably reduced if this height would interfere with the normal operation of the ship, but in ships intended for the carriage of timber deck cargoes, the height of bulwarks is to be at least 1.0m.


2.3.2 语态

(l) 由于规范条款中的规定主要强调应采取的措施或需注意的事项,而不是执行者,所以译成英文时,常用被动语态,翻译时应注意主语的转换和谓语的选择。

例 1: 对冰区航行船舶应考虑环境温度的影响。

Where a ship is intended to navigate in ice, the effect of ambient temperatures is to be taken in consideration.

例 2: 船体结构中,凡承受高应力的焊缝,应尽量避免采用固定垫板连接。否则,应经本社同意,并保证准确的装配。

The use of permanent backing bars in highly stressed welds in hull structures is to be avoided as far as possible. Where backing bars are unavoidable, special care is to be taken to ensure accurate fit-up and consent of the Society is to be obtained.

(2)规范中被动语态常用的表达式很多,例如:

provision is to be made ... 应对…作出规定

means is/are to be provided… 应提供设施

measures are to be taken … 应采取措施

attention is to be paid … 应注意

例 1:船底肋板、旁内龙骨上均应开流水孔,应采取措施能使水自船底的各个流水孔至吸口均能自由流通,其中考虑到泵的抽唧率。

Drain holes ate to be cut in the floors and in side keelsons in way of the bottom. Provision is to be made for the free passage of water form all parts of the bottom to the suction, taking into accounts the pumping rates required.

例 2:甲板货物装载区应设有保护和固定甲板货物的围护设施。

Means are to be provided to enable deck cargoes to be adequately secured and protected in the cargo containment areas.

例 3:采用钢质风雨密舱口盖的船舶,在不影响船舶安全和采取有效措施的条件下,经本社同意,对其舱口围板高度可予以适当降低。

For ships provided with steel weathertight hatchcovers, with the consent of the Society, the height of hatchway coamings may be reduced provided that efficient measures have been taken and that the safety of the ship id not impaired.

例 4:如具有绝缘层的甲板上装载或使用车辆,则在根据甲板厚度确定用板的允许载荷时,应注意甲板变形对绝缘层的影响。

Where wheeled vehicles are stowed or used on insulated decks, when the permissible loading of decks is determined based on the thickness of decks, attention is to be paid to effect on insulated coating due to deck deformation.

2.4 规范常用语与常用词

2.4.1"适用于……"be applicable to... 或 apply to ...

例 1:本节的规定适用于一般船体结构和构件的焊缝设计,特殊构件将另行考虑。

The provisions of this Section apply to the weld design for normal hull structures and components, special structures will be subject to individual consideration.

2.4.2 "满足要求"与"符合规定"

一般情况下,"满足要求" 译成 to comply with (或meet) the requirement,"符合规定"译成 to be in accordance/compliance with requirement。

例 1: 在船中部0.5L区域内的长桥楼甲板作为强力甲板时,其船中剖面模数及最小厚度应满足本章 2.2.1及 2.4.2.1的要求。

Where the long bridge deck within 0.5 L amidships is regarded as strength deck, the midship section modulus and minimum thickness of the deck plating comply with the requirements of 2.2.1 and 2.4.2.l of this is Chapter.

例 2: 结构直接计算的方法应符合本社《船体结构直接计算》指导性文件的规定。

The methods of structure direct calculations are to be in accordance with the provisions in the Guidance Notes of Hull Structure Direct Calculation by Society.

2.4.3 "另有规定"与"特殊考虑"

(1) 除另有规定者外……,

Unless other stated/provided,...

Except where otherwise stated/provided,...

除另有明文规定外……,

Unless expressly stated/provided otherwise,

除第 5 章内另有明文规定者外……,

Except as expressly sated/provided in Chapter 5,...

例 1: 除另有规定者外,本规定适用各型船舶的管系和舱室通风系统。

The provisions of this Chapter apply to piping and ventilating system on all types of ships except where otherwise stated.

例 2: 除另有规定者外,本篇适用于船长自 20m 至 300m 的焊接的钢质海船。

Unless otherwise stated,this PART applies to steel ships of all welded construction from 20m to 300m in length inclusive.

(2)"将/可作特殊考虑"译成 will may be specially considered

可另行考虑 may be subject to individual consideration

将作变通考虑 alternative arrangements will be considered

例 1: 当角接的两个构件的厚度相差甚大时,则该角焊缝的尺寸将予以特殊考虑。

Where the difference in thickness between the abutting member and the table member is considerable, the size of fillet welds will be specially considered.

例 2: 本节规定适用与一般船体结构和构件的焊缝设计, 特殊结构将另行考虑。

The Section applies to the weld design for normal hull structure and components and special structures will be subject to individual consideration.

例 3: 对尾机型船舶,此种机座纵桁应尽可能地向尾延伸,且其端部应由强肋骨或实肋板支持。如尾部线型过于尖瘦,在尾尖舱舱壁后设过渡肘板有困难时,其布置可特殊考虑。

In machinery spaces situated at the aft end,such engine seating girders are to be carried as far as practicable and the ends effectively supported by web frames or transverse. Where it is impracticable to provide to transition brackets abaft the after peak bulkhead because the after-body of the ship is too fine, the arrangement may be specially considered.

2.4.4 "提交本社批准"与"经本社验船师同意"

(1)"提交本社批准" to be submitted to the Society for approval

"提交本社供备查" to be submitted the Society for reference/information/file

例 1: 对所有船舶,应将下列图纸提交本社批准:

For all ships, the following plans are to be submitted to the Society for approval:

(2)"经本社或本社验船师同意"为

subject to thee agreement/consent/sanction of the Society or the Surveyor

或 with the agreement/sanction/consent of the Society or the Surveyor

"使本社验船师满意"为 to the satisfaction of the Surveyor


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