惊讶!美国空军中知名度最大的中国飞行员竟是他

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导读:惊讶!美国空军中知名度最大的中国飞行员竟是他

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描述:王海和僚机焦景文

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描述:焦景文

焦景文是朝鲜战争中著名的王海大队的一员,王海的僚机,有击落敌机三架的记录,在中国空军的英雄榜上并不是最突出的一位,甚至也没达到“王牌飞行员”击落敌机5架的标准。但是他“不是王牌,胜似王牌”,因为在美国的空军圈子里,他的大名却比任何其他一名中国飞行员都响亮!这是因为他和美军王牌飞行员罗比-雷斯那(ROBBIE RISNER)之间的一场经典空战。

雷思那可不是简单的人物。他是美国空军最著名的王牌飞行员之一,国会荣誉勋章的获得者。和德国、日本、苏联的顶级飞行员都交过手。可他认为自己一辈子遇到的最强大的对手却是一位被他击落的中国飞行员---焦景文。美国空军界也把这次空战视为空战史上经典中的经典。

阅读雷思那的战斗报告,虽是从敌人的角度,虽是一次我军失利的空战,其精彩与惊险却仍然历历在目,叹为观止。双方斗智斗勇的过程,也让人热血沸腾。读罢由衷叹一句,焦景文,真英雄也!

空战爆发于1952年10月10日。战斗一开始,经验老道的雷思那就先发现我机,突施偷袭。第一炮就打掉了焦景文座机的座舱盖,使焦一开始就陷入绝境。正当雷思那以为这将是一次轻松的猎杀时,焦景文却突然驾机直扑地面。在目瞪口呆的雷斯那认为已不可能的情况下,在离地面不到5英尺(不足两米)的高度拉起改平,擦地飞行。雷斯那虽然也直追下来,但已无法攻击。因为战斗机的机枪有个微微向上的角度,怎么也不可能对离地两米的目标开火的。两架飞机就在树梢的高度你追我赶,翻滚,盘旋,蛇形机动,互相企图寻找射击角度。按雷思那自己的话,他把“最后一点点的本事都使出来了”,“完全是凭着直觉”,才勉强咬住焦景文。为了争取一点点速度上的优势,焦景文曾飞出了一个让雷思那惊呼“平生所见最疯狂的动作之一”,横滚后倒着擦山顶飞过(焦景文可是没有座舱盖的),焦的脑袋离山顶的树梢也只有几英尺。另一刻两机曾机翼挨着机翼贴地飞行,雷思那有机会清楚的看到对手的面孔(焦的氧气罩也被吸走了),吃惊的发现是个年轻的东方人。他原以为这么高超的飞行员一定是个苏军飞行员。焦景文则向他示威的挥了挥拳头。

两人缠斗一阵后飞抵中方机场上空。地面防空炮火猛烈开火向美机射击。这时焦景文误以为在防空火力的掩护下已经安全了而放松了警惕,准备着陆。没想到狡猾的雷思那竟然穿透防空火网,直扑下来,在焦着陆的一刻打飞了他的半个机翼。但焦临危不乱,成功的将飞机迫降在跑道旁的草地上,安然无恙。但迫降激起的巨大尘土让雷斯那误以为战机已解体爆炸。他的僚机也兴奋的狂叫,“你刚刚干掉了整个共产空军!”(呵呵,对焦的评价够高的。)不过雷思那也为他的冲动付出了代价。他的僚机在返航途中被地面炮火击落,跳伞身亡。

雷斯那战后对此精彩空战的描述轰动美国空军,但一直不知道对手是谁。几十年后与中国空军开始接触后才知道是焦景文,於是他名扬海外。但中国空军很少有人知道这次空战,毕竟这是一次败仗。但我认为,重要的不是以成败论英雄,而是为焦景文在空战中表现的大无畏精神和无比高超的飞行技术而由衷自豪。

============================================

英文原版报告:

Major Robinson "Robbie" Risner's sixth kill.

10 October 1952.

At 0900 Risner and his wingman, Joe Logan, taxied [their F-86s] down the Kimpo runway. The other two pilots followed in quick succeession. This flight, code-named "John Red," made its way to the Yalu, some thirty minutes from Kimpo. The flight's mission was to protect a squadron of USAF fighter-bombers that was scheduled to attack a chemical plant at the mouth of the river. When the flight arrived at "MiG Alley," Risner immediately gave the "pus*y willow" command [turn off IFF] and took the flight on a sweep along the Chinese side of the Yalu. This preemptive maneuver would give the fighter-bombers maximum protection against any potential MiG attacks.

The initial sweep yielded no MiG sightings. On the second sweep, however, Risner saw a glint of sunlight at his twelve o'clock low. As if by instinct, he knew that this sparkle meant MiGs. He ordered his flight to drop their wing fuel tanks. The four MiGs did the same as they made a 180-degree turn and retreated back toward their base at Antung. These MiGs were hungry for the lower performance F-84 fighter-bombers, and had no intention of tangling with the top-of-the-line F-86s. But Risner had other plans. He aligned his pipper on the tail-end Charlie and gave his six M-3 .50 caliber guns a squeeze. The incendiaries shattered the MiG's canopy.

In an effort to escape, the MiG pilot descended at maximum speed. At one point the MiG did a half-roll and flew upside down for fifty seconds as Risner pounded him with short bursts from his machine guns. The MiG then entered into a split-S, and Risner thought to himself, "This is going to be the easiest kill of my career." Risner, convinced that the MiG would not be able to pull out of the S in time to avoid hitting the ground, made an angling split-S and braced himself for the impending explosion. Nothing happened.

The MiG did not crash as Risner had so smugly predicted. Instead, it pulled out of the dive just in time, created a billowing cloud of dust and pebbles over a dry riverbed. The MiG, now flying five feet over the deck, was too low to hit with the F-86's guns, which fired slightly upward. But Risner had too much drive to cut off the chase. He was not about to let all those practice dogfights flown in the F-51 over the Oklahoma skies go to waste. FInally, he had met his match -- a pilot who would force him to draw on every skill he had ever learned. Risner was about to embark on the ultimate dogfight. At this point, Risner could not kill the MiG but at least he could take a good look at his foe. He maneuvered his F-86 alongside the MiG-15. As they coasted wingtip to wingtip, Risner peered into the now open cockpit. He could see the eyes of the pilot and the stitching of his leather helmet. Risner noticed that the pilot's oxygen mask was gone: it had been sucked off when he shot away the canopy. The MiG pilot returned Risner's gaze and raised his fist in defiance.

The MiG then throttled back in an attempt to catch Risner off guard. He hoped to slip behind Risner and pound him with his 23- and 37- mm cannons. But Risner had too much situational awareness to fall for such a trap; he did a high G-force roll over the top of the MiG and came down behind it. SImultaneously, the MiG broke right, pulling all the G's it could. But Risner stayed behind the MiG. HE later commented, "I never thought about what I was doing, it was all reflex."

After several minutes of hard maneuvers, both planes exited the dry riverbed and began to climb a heavily wooded hill. To Risner's surprise, the MiG executed one of the craziest maneuvers he had ever seen. In an effort to gain a small speed advantage, the MiG did an inverted roll and flew upside down over the hill. His open cockpit was just a few feet from the treetops. Risner's wingman, Joe Logan, who had been flying high and to the right the entire time, screamed in the headset: "Hit him lead. Pound him!" But Risner could not. He was doing all he could just to stay behind him.

The planes rounded a hill at .8 Mach, then all of a sudden the MiG cut his throttle and Risner rolled over the top of him. Wingtip to wingtip now, the MiG pilot again raised his fist at Risner. Next the MiG made an abrupt, full-throttle, 90-degree turn to the left. Risner new that this was his last chance to blow this guy out of the sky. He let his pipper creep toward the MiG's tailpipe, and just as he was about to fire, Risner heard Logan's voice: "Lead, they're shooting at us." The two planes were now directly over the Chinese air base at Tak Tung Kau.

Despite this warning, Risner continued the chase: he was too close to let the MiG slip away. The MiG pilot erroneously assumed that the flak from the airfield would scare him off. It did not. Risner chased the MiG in between two hangars. When the MiG attempted to land on the dusty runway, Risner hammered him hard. He blew four feet off the left wing.

As the wing burned, the MiG pilot desperately sought out the grassy side of the runway for an emergency landing. Risner still had no intention of letting the plane land; he fired all of his remaining ammunition into its tailpipe. The MiG would not give up: it leveled off and attempted a "belly landing." At this point, his luck ran out. The MiG burst apart in a tremendous explosion, and pieces of flaming aircraft flew all over the airfield, igniting the parked aircraft nearby. "Red lead," Logan yelled ecstatically, "you just destroyed the whole Communist air force." Risner chuckled but was more intent on getting his wingman and himself safely back to base than reveling in his victory. Risner and Logan threw the coal to their engines and made a steep climb away from the base.

As the F-86s climbed out, they passed over some 250 anti-aircraft guns which lined the perimeters of both Tak Tung Kau and Antung air bases. Flak exploded all around them as the pilots jinked to avoid it. Just before Risner and Logan crossed the Yalu back into North Korea, Logan radioed Risner, "Lead, my fuel gauge is down." Risner flew around Logan's F-86 to make sure that the fuel tank had not been hit. It had. Fuel and hydraulic fluid were streaming out of Logan's belly. Risner radioed Logan, "It looks like you've been hit."

Fearing that his wingman would not have enough fuel and fluid to make it back to Kimpo, Risner decided on a bold course of action. He ordered Logan to open the throttle up: "Might as well use it before you lose it, Red 2." As soon as Logan ran out fo fuel, Risner would position his nose behind Logan's stricken aircraft and gently push it periodically until they reached the friendly island of Chodo [Cheju-do?], where Logan could safely bail out. Risner figured that enough air would be flowing through Logan's tailpipe and the gap below Risner's tailpipe to prevent Risner's F-86 from stalling, but the move was still risky. While executing this maneuver, Risner realized that he placed his own aircraft in danger. If he sucked in any damaged engine parts from Logan's plane, his own engine might quit, or worse yet, explode. To the pilots' utter amazement, the emergency maneuver worked.

Risner successfully pushed Logan's plane to a point tenes off the coast of Chodo. At this point, Logan radioed Risner, "OK, I am going to bail out. I'll see you in a little while as soon as they pick me up."...

(Risner lands, waits two hours, meets the seaplane, Logan drowned when the chute cord tangled around his neck)

From: Officers in Flight Suits. Sherwood.

网友的精彩讨论:

主題标题:经典空战---焦景文大战雷思那【liaonidas】2005-05-19 13:53:40'2606字节[101]

人急了什么都敢干,所以说没有经过实战的空军还是嫩点儿【正规军】2005-05-19 15:26:18'<无内容>[0]

in english, however no mention of name..【srpg】2005-05-19 14:51:03'2804字节[21]

可以判断米格此时没油了,所以一味地在低空机动并且尽量减速,急于返航,而不是加大油门作垂直机动并伺机反攻。【木刀】2005-05-19 15:00:42'<无内容>[2]

典型的游猎战例~~~~~~~~~美帝油就是多啊就是多【paingod】2005-05-19 15:04:21'<无内容>[0]

真有此事?不到2米了还能拉起改平么?我觉得不到200米都够悬的。我军第一架摔机的SU-27,是在800米进入俯冲,都没拉起来……【木刀】2005-05-19 14:26:40'<无内容>[7]

这个说法有问题,个人感觉焦景文早就在做拉起动作了,2米改平不过是整个动作轨迹的最后一个节点,而且阿拉也觉得是一种运气,估计差点就是直接撞地了。【马赫】2005-05-19 14:37:32'<无内容>[3]

首先F-86没有炮,只有枪。其次那个横滚擦山头的动作也不知道目的何在,可能是通过滚转减速。不过米格15在低空性能不如F-86,打得够艰难的【木刀】2005-05-19 14:41:54'<无内容>[2]

MD要努力啊,偶原来作编辑时经常纠正20cm炮枪不分的毛病【正规军】2005-05-19 14:54:05'<无内容>[1]

文章对战术动作的细节描述很不清楚,所以无法根据其描述的内容来判断战术用意何在,文章对于焦滚转接擦山顶的动作称之为争取速度优势,刚好跟侬说的滚转减速背道而驰,【马赫】2005-05-19 14:47:08'<无内容>[1]

低速也能称之为速度优势嘛【木刀】2005-05-19 14:48:52'<无内容>[2]

让攻击一方无法及时减速冲前?说实话,阿拉觉得文章这个高度上做这么多机动动作的描述真有点不真实,滚转一样掉高度,阿拉差点又想说木有撞山素运气了,而且米格的水平机动性木有垂直机动性那么明显,既然可以做大速度俯冲脱离,为虾米不能想想做做短促带杆的【马赫】2005-05-19 15:03:18'16字节[3]

估计米格连炮弹都没有了,机动只是为了不让佩刀有机会开火。【木刀】2005-05-19 15:05:11'<无内容>[1]

自始自终木有一次脱离机会,也没有一次进入攻击阵位,有炮弹也打不出来啊。总觉得有点蛮干加运气因素,不过基本技术肯定还是很扎实【马赫】2005-05-19 15:07:40'<无内容>[1]

你看过坂井三郎回忆里面他在成都攻击一架中国双翼机吗?那架也是没能进入一次攻击阵位,发射一发炮弹,但十几架零式轮番攻击就是打不下他,后来一直打到山区,中国飞行员被迫爬高减速才被击落,坂井很佩服,你呢?【me109g】2005-05-19 15:23:35'<无内容>[1]

去WC,马拖螺拉地铁,下面附了E文资料【liaonidas】2005-05-19 14:34:58'<无内容>[1]

一些细节描写实在不可理解。【木刀】2005-05-19 14:36:08'<无内容>[0]

800米没拉起来?发动机故障?【干柴烈火】2005-05-19 14:29:48'<无内容>[2]

高度太低了,最后拉起时迎角过大失速。我军一块王牌就此升天。【木刀】2005-05-19 14:34:26'<无内容>[1]

没有5架战果的也敢自称王牌?国家早不承认工农兵大学学历了!【me109g】2005-05-19 14:45:24'<无内容>[2]

SU-27飞半滚倒转规定高点高度最低为1200米,时维和敢压到800米来做,这种胆量还不够?再说人家是普加乔夫地徒弟,在空军说来算个高手了。【木刀】2005-05-19 14:52:44'<无内容>[2]

你知道王牌是有特定标准的,技术好,全世界比他好的多了去了,这种王牌也就是本部门内部互相吹捧用用,出去跟别人说一没人承认二还被嘲笑,跟政府官员考党校文凭当上博士一样【me109g】2005-05-19 14:56:51'<无内容>[0]

失速是不是有警告的摸? 没弹射?【TOTO】2005-05-19 14:55:43'<无内容>[0]

妖机大姨妈又来了【米格战机】2005-05-19 14:48:14'<无内容>[0]

还得看进入速度,俯冲角度,800米没拉起来很正常~~~~~~~~~~【马赫】2005-05-19 14:34:21'<无内容>[0]

人物简介:

焦景文,1926年生,河北省武安县人。1945年10月入伍,1949年10月加入中国共产党。历任飞行员、飞行大队长、团长、副师长、副军长等职。在抗美援朝战争中,担任大队长王海的僚机.为掩护长机安全,为全大队取得击落敌机14架、击伤l架的辉煌战果,做出了重要贡献,被誉为"英雄僚机'"。他个人先后击落敌机3架、击伤1架。荣立特等功、二等功各一次。1952年12月空军授予他"二级战斗英雄"荣誉称号。1983年5月离职休养。1988年7月,荣获中国人民解放军胜利功勋荣誉章。

焦景文的事迹在部队里流传甚广,人们都亲切地称他为"英雄僚机"。因为,无论是在什么情况下,他都能坚决地履行一个僚机飞行员的光荣职责。在激烈的空战中,他像一面坚韧的"盾牌",顽强地给长机抵挡住敌人的炮火;他又像一支坚强的"铁臂",敌人左来左打,右来右击,保证了长机的安全,保证了战斗的胜利。

1951年冬,焦景文和他的战友们一起来到了战火纷飞的朝鲜前线。

空战一开始,焦景文就显现出英雄僚机的本色。11月8日下午,其所属大队6架战鹰奉令向战区进发。焦景文机警敏捷,紧紧跟随着长机。飞至清川江上空时,发现左前方低空有黑压压一大片敌机,有的已向清川江桥投下炸弹。王海一声令下,6架战鹰从万米高空猛冲直下,就像迅雷一样砸在敌人头顶上。顿时,敌机就乱了阵势,有的落荒而逃,有的把炸弹胡乱扔在沙滩上仓促应战。敌人不敢正面交锋,有8架敌机忽啦一下摆开了一个大圆圈。敌人这一手很毒辣,一能互相掩护;二能一圈套一圈逐步脱离;三能寻求战机咬尾攻击。

起初,焦景文掩护长机王海跟敌机混在一起转了一阵圈。转着转着,王海突然拉起机头,急速跃升,焦景文猛一拉杆也紧紧跟了上去。焦景文非常了解王海,知道他爬高占位以后,就要采取大动作量猛烈攻击了!果然,转瞬之间,王海刷地俯冲而下,焦景文也紧跟着长机猛冲下来。正在王海向一架敌机狠狠射击的当儿,第二架敌机却抬起机头,妄想向王海攻击。焦景文眼明手快,还没等这架敌机的炮弹出膛,就对它嗖嗖地射出一串炮弹。这个家伙见势不妙,慌忙推下机头,狡猾地躲闪开了。几乎在这同时,第三架敌机在后面朝着焦景文开了火。险恶的情势陡然出现在焦景文面前:前面,那架敌机又拉起机头向长机王海攻击;后面,有向自己猛烈开炮的敌机。在这万分火急的情况下,是打前头那架敌机,掩护王海呢?还是赶快摆脱自己被攻击的位置呢?

"掩护长机!坚决保证长机安全!"焦景文为了集体,为了战斗胜利,毅然做出这样的决定。于是,他不顾后面敌机射过来的排排炮弹,仍然狠狠咬住前面那架敌机不放,紧赶猛追,把敌机身影套进了光环,随着一串串火光,这架敌机被打得轰然一声,凌空爆炸。在这同时,王海也揍掉了另一架敌机,随即猛地跃升上来,赶走了攻击焦景文的敌机。接着,他们又插入敌阵,继续拼杀格斗。

我6架战鹰迅雷不及掩耳的攻击,打得60多架敌机蒙头转向,摸不清我们出动多少飞机,个个惊慌失措,四散而逃。焦景文和王海抓住这大好战机,痛快淋漓地打击着这群空中强盗,两个人又各击落敌机一架。

后来,在许多次惊心动魄的激战中,焦景文都是这样忠实地履行了一个僚机飞行员神圣的职责。他常常对同志们说:"你要忠于祖国,就要忠于自己的职责;你要热爱祖国,就要热爱自己的长机!"。简单朴素的语言,深刻地道出了他对祖国、对人民、对本职工作的无限忠诚。

12月15日,一大队盘旋在高空,掩护兄弟部队作战,空战快结束了,突然发现兄弟部队一架返航的单机被4架敌机紧跟着,眼看我单机就要遭到敌机的攻击了。在这危急的时刻,王海和焦景文从高空猛冲下去,扑向敌机。霎时,硝烟滚滚,炮声隆隆。

在激战中,突然从高空又冲下来8架敌机,凶神恶煞似的向王海和焦景义开炮!

"后方有8架敌机!"焦景文急促地报告长机。

"明白,注意警戒!"王海回答。

"后面有我,你尽管攻击前面的敌机!"焦景文坚决地说。

在焦景文有力的掩护下,王海推力加速,勇猛追击,终于把前面的一架敌机击落。就在这个时候,焦景文也迅速抓住战机,用短促、猛烈、准确的射击,向攻击王海的敌机发出连珠似的炮火。敌机卷着浓烟烈火翻滚着跌落下去。

这时,后面的8架敌机疯狂地扑上来了。

"102!向右躲开,赶快躲开!"焦景文的话音紧迫而急促。王海还没来得及回答,立刻机警地把机身向右一偏,只见一串红色曳光弹在左机翼下边飞过。好险!

焦景文见长机遭到敌机严重威胁,顿时怒火万丈。眼看8架敌机越来越近,焦景文面无惧色,心想只要能保证长机安全,一切危险我都敢承担!他不顾后面敌机射过来的猛烈炮火,忽左忽右地护卫着王海,拦截敌机猛烈的攻击。这当儿,其他战友也插入敌阵与敌机格斗起来。然而,焦景义与王海却失掉了目视联系。

原来,两架敌机趁着阳光晃眼的一会儿,偷偷咬上焦景文,射出一串炮火。焦景文觉得机身剧烈地抖动了几下,一股烟雾窜入座舱,飞机起火了!他迅速打开灭火装置,摇动几下操纵杆,蹬几下舵,可是飞机摇摇摆摆已经不听使唤了。

在这危难时刻,焦景文首先想到的还是自己的长机。因为敌机进攻气势未减,而自己已失去反击能力。虽然他对王海的作战本领深信不疑,但毕竟是孤军作战,处境十分危险。想到这儿,焦景文万分焦急,他多么想一下子飞到长机身边,替长机来担当风险啊!然而,他的飞机已负重伤,随时都有爆炸的危险!

"102!102!你在哪里?你在哪里?我不能掩护你了!注意警戒!注意警戒!"

王海在击落和驱走威胁战友安全的敌机以后,便急速上升转弯,准备回头迎敌,忽然看到一架战机着了火,有好几架敌机还在对他疯狂扫射,王海禁不住惊叫起来:"啊!是焦景文!"这时,他浑身热血沸腾,义愤填膺,一推机头冲下去,恨不得把这帮空中强盗一下子全打下来。

"103,103 快跳伞!快跳伞!……"

王海跃升到焦景文上空,闯人敌阵,上下翻飞,左冲右打,击退了围攻焦景文的敌机。

焦景文的飞机被团团烟火笼罩着,已经完全失去控制。迫不得已,焦景文无限怜惜地离开了座舱,在长机和战友们的掩护下,安全跳伞降落了。

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