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40年法国战败后,纳粹因种族岐视屠杀3千法军黑人战俘

Reviewed by Yannick Cormier (Université de Montréal)

评论人:Yannick Cormier(加拿大蒙特利尔大学)

Published on H-War (April, 2009)

发表于H-War(2009年4月)

Commissioned by Janet G. Valentine (U.S. Army Command and General Staff College - Dept of Mil Hist)

由Janet G. Valentine委托(美国陆军司令部和总参谋部 - 军事历史部)

The Unknown Massacres: Black French Prisoners in 1940

未知的大屠杀:1940年的黑人法国战俘

Historically speaking, the Holocaust, and the Nazi mass exterminations and atrocities committed in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union between 1939 and 1945 have always received more attention than other crimes that took place during the Second World War.

从历史上看,1939年至1945年间在东欧和苏联发生的大屠杀,德国纳粹大规模灭绝和暴行,比第二次世界大战期间发生的其他犯罪一直受到更多的关注。

For instance, a long-forgotten fact was the various massacres of African French war prisoners during the German invasion of France in May and June 1940, when German soldiers randomly executed black Tirailleurs Sénégalais.

例如,一个长期被遗忘的事实是1940年5月和6月德国入侵法国期间对非洲法国战俘的各种屠杀,当时德国士兵随意处决了黑色的塞内加加尔外籍兵团。

Raffael Scheck, professor of modern history at Colby College, recently wrote on this in Hitler’s African Victims: The German Army Massacres of Black French Soldiers in 1940.

科尔比学院近代史教授拉斐尔·谢克最近在1940年希特勒的非洲受害者:德国陆军对黑人法国士兵大屠杀中。

This book presents an interesting account of these events, and provides a fair analysis of the causes and motivations of the perpetrators.

这本书介绍了这些事件的有趣描述,并提供了对原因的公正分析。

In four detailed chapters, Scheck presents an overview of the massacres of black French Colonial Troops, the number of victims( 1,500 to3,000), as well as the military events that led to them.

在四个详细的章节中,拉斐尔·谢克概述了对黑人法国殖民军队的屠杀,受害者人数(1,500至3,000人),以及其他导致他们死亡的军事动作

In order to illuminate the motivations that led the German invaders randomly to murder so many black war prisoners, chapters 2 and 3 give an overall analysis of a problematic that seemed unanswerable in this particular case: why did this happen?

为了阐明导致德国入侵者随机谋杀如此多黑人战俘的动机,第2章和第3章对这个特殊情况下似乎无法回答的问题进行了全面分析:为什么会发生这种情况?

Chapter 4 takes a look at the implications of such events, and it integrates those atrocities into the gradual barbarization process of the German Wehrmacht that took place between 1939 and 1945.

第4章介绍了这些事件的含义,并将这些暴行纳入了1939年至1945年间德国国防军逐步的野蛮化过程


In 1940, the French army included more than 100,000 black French soldiers from France’s African colonies, mainly Senegal, Mauritania,and Niger.

1940年,法国军队包括来自法国非洲各殖民地的10万多名黑人法国士兵,主要是塞内加尔,毛里塔尼亚和尼日尔。

More than 75,000 of them served in France before and during the German invasion; the rest of them served guard duty in the various colonies.

在德国入侵之前和期间,超过75,000人在法国本土服役;其余的人在各个殖民地担任警卫职务。

As the Wehrmacht panzer divisions swept across France in May-June 1940, some of those black French soldiers (about 40,000 of them), mainly organized in black regiments or mixed units, were engaged in fierce combat against German soldiers.

1940年5月至6月,当德国国防军的装甲部队横扫法国时,其中一些黑人法国士兵(约有4万人)主要是在黑人独立团或黑白混合部队中组织起来,他们与德国士兵进行了激烈的战斗。

About 10,000 black soldiers were killed, some wounded, and others taken prisoner during the French debacle.

在法国溃败期间,大约1万名黑人士兵被杀,一些人受伤,还有一些人被俘。

Scheck states that between 1,500 to 3,000 black French prisoners of war were massacred throughout the campaign, either during or after combat.。

拉斐尔·谢克表示,在整个战役期间,无论是在战斗期间(举手投降都杀)还是战斗之后(战俘),都有1,500至3,000名黑人法国战俘被屠杀。

Generally speaking, Tirailleurs Sénégalais were treated differently from other war prisoners by the victorious army.

一般来讲,胜利军队(德军)对“塞内加尔黑人军团”的待遇与其他战俘不同。

The existence of a well-implanted anti-black racism and stereotypes among the German soldiers frequently resulted in the black French troops being separated from other prisoners of war.

德国士兵中存在着根深地固的反黑种族主义和陈规定型观念,经常导致黑人法国军队士兵与其他战俘分开。

Fear of coupes-coupes (a hand-to-hand weapon used by the Tirailleurs Sénégalais that German soldiers considered a treacherous weapon), latent desire for revenge because of German losses, or simple racism, resulted in random massacres of black French war prisoners by members of the Wehrmacht.

对于Coupes-coupes(一种德国士兵认为是塞内加尔黑人士兵特殊的危险武器的手持武器),由于德国人的被杀或者就是简单的种族主义而复仇的潜在欲望,导致对于Coupes-coupes(一种德国士兵认为是危险武器的TirailleursSénégalais使用的手持武器),由于德国人的死伤或简单的种族主义而复仇的潜在欲望,导致德国防军成员随意屠杀黑人法国战争俘虏。


The author’s investigation of what caused the slaughters is also interesting.

作者对屠宰事件的调查也很有意思

Scheck gives a precise account of those situational factors and links them well to ideological ones, stating that racist Nazi indoctrination and stereotypes must be fully integrated into the chaotic context of fighting in order to explain the massacres.

拉斐尔·谢克精确地描述了这些情境因素,并将它们与意识形态因素联系起来,并指出纳粹种族主义的灌输和刻板印象完全融入战斗的混乱背景中,以便解释大屠杀。

He remarks that there were no clear governmental or military orders authorizing such criminal behavior toward specific groups of prisoners of war in 1940.

他承认,1940年德国并没有明确的政府或军事命令授权对特定的战俘团体采取这种犯罪行为。

In fact, many of those atrocities were committed by heavily indoctrinated elite Wehrmacht,or Nazi military units like the SS Totenkopf, or the Gross Deutschland.

事实上,其中许多暴行都是由严密灌输的德国精英国防军,或像SS Totenkopf(党卫或军),或者德意志总会这样的纳粹军事单位犯下的。 Those troops were already (or would be, along with others, later on) held responsible for racist behavior and excesses, as well as mass murders during May-June 1940. 。

1940年5月至6月期间,这些部队已经(或将会和其他人一起)对种族主义行为和过激行为以及大规模谋杀负责。

Scheck avoids overall generalization on what happened to those prisoners by discussing the random character and inconsistency of the massacres. 。

拉斐尔·谢克避免全面概括性的讨论这些德军屠杀黑人战俘是随意的与矛盾的

Readers quickly understand that not all black French war prisoners were executed, and that some German or French officers even managed to prevent such events from occurring

和大屠杀的不一致。读者很快就明白,并非所有黑人法国战俘都被处决,而且一些德国或法国官员甚至设法防止此类事件发生。事.

In fact, the treatment of imprisoned black French soldiers actually improved after the May-June 1940 campaign, especially in prisoner of war camps.

事实上,在1940年5月至6月的屠杀事件之后,对被监禁的黑人法国士兵的待遇实际上得到了改善,特别是在战俘营中。

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