列宁对付日本干涉苏俄远东的怪招,让远东共和国独立

列宁对付日本干涉苏俄远东的怪招,让远东共和国独立

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历史

列宁对付日本干涉苏俄远东的怪招,让远东共和国独立

Representatives of the Far Eastern Republic meet with Japanese Military Officers in July, 1920 at Gongota station, Transbaikal territory. (Trans-Siberian Photo Gallery)

1920年7月,远东共和国代表在泛贝加尔领土的Gongota车站会见了日本军官。 (跨西伯利亚照片廊)

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FAR EASTERN REPUBLIC MEET WITH JAPANESE MILITARY OFFICERS IN JULY, 1920 AT GONGOTA STATION, TRANSBAIKAL TERRITORY. (TRANS-SIBERIAN PHOTO GALLERY)

1920年7月在泛贝加尔地区GONGOTA STATION与日本军事官员会晤远东共和国的代表。 (泛西伯利亚区相廊)

In March of 1917, the mighty Russian Empire fell when the people of Russia, fed up by chronic food shortages and massive casualties caused by WWI, revolted and forced Tsar Nicholas from the throne. A few months later, in Sept. 1917, the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin assumed control and formed the beginnings of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR).

1917年3月,当俄罗斯人民因长期粮食短缺和第一次世界大战造成的大规模伤亡受到挫折而叛乱,使强大的俄罗斯帝国垮台,革命并迫使沙皇尼古拉斯退位。几个月后,在1917年9月,由弗拉基米尔·列宁领导的布尔什维克接管开始成为俄罗斯社会主义联邦苏维埃共和国(RSFSR)-苏俄。

As the Bolsheviks (aka the Red Army) were busy fighting the whites in the western and southern part of Russia in 1918 and 1919, the vast area of Siberia and eastward declared itself an independent republic in June of 1918, and by November 1918 the various factions loyal to the “white movement” merged and formed the Provisional All-Russian government in Siberia, under Supreme Leader Adm. Aleksandr Kolchak. As the Red Army consolidated power in the west, they turned their might on Siberia and eastward. On 14 Nov. 1919, Bolshevik forces attacked and captured Omsk. Kolchak lost control of his government and was forced to abandon the city and the gold; eventually being captured by the Bolsheviks and executed on Feb. 7, 1920.

随着布尔什维克军队(又名红军)在1918年和1919年忙于与俄罗斯西部和南部的白俄作战,西伯利亚的广大地区和东部在1918年6月宣布自己是一个独立的共和国,到1918年11月各种忠于“白俄运动”的派系在最高领导人亚历山大·高尔查克的统治下,在西伯利亚合并并组建了临时全俄政府。随着红军在西部巩固权力,他们腾出手来对西伯利亚向东进攻此地的白俄。 1919年11月14日,布尔什维克部队袭击并佔领了鄂木斯克。高尔察克政府解体,被迫放弃了城市和黄金储备,最终被布尔什维克捕获并于1920年2月7日被执行死刑。,

In February 1918, a "Siberia Planning Committee" was formed by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff and the Army Ministry with the aim of exploring the possibility that the Tsarist collapse was an opportunity to free Japan from any future threat from Russia by detaching Siberia and forming an independent buffer state.

1918年2月,日本参谋本部和陆军省成立了一个西伯利亚计划委员会,以探讨万一俄国保皇党(白军)失利,日本如何利用这一机会,将西伯利亚从俄国手中分离独立出去,成为日俄之间的缓冲国,从而一劳永逸地解决俄国对日本的威胁[

The Japanese, taking advantage of the chaos in civil war Russia, interfering Soviet Russia , occupied Vladivostok and north along the coast of Siberia, including Sakhalin Island.,

日本利用内战中的混乱俄罗斯,借干涉苏俄,占领了海参威以及沿着西伯利亚海岸的北部,包括全萨哈林岛(南萨哈林岛已在日俄战争后被日本佔领)。

To avoid direct conflict with the Japanese, the RSFSR, on April 6th, 1920, created the Far Eastern Republic (FER), essentially as a buffer zone between Russia and Japan. The FER, while officially independent, was in reality controlled by the Russians. The FER composed most of the Trans Baikal region, with Verkho-Udinsk (today Ulan-Ude) as its capital and was officially recognized by Japan 3 months later in July of 1920. The FER continued to expand its borders eastward as the Red Army defeated its opposition in the region, and moved its capital to Chita in October, 1920. In Dec, 1920 Priamur and the Maritime regions (which included Vladivostok) were also added to the Republic.

为了避免与日本直接冲突,RSFSR(苏俄)于1920年4月6日断尾求生,创建了远东共和国(FER),主要是作为俄罗斯和日本之间的缓冲区。 远东共和国虽然正式独立,但实际上是由俄罗斯人控制的。 远东共和国组成了大部分的贝加尔湖地区,以乌金斯克(今乌兰乌德)为首都,并于3月后于1920年7月被日本正式承认。随着红军的击败此地区的白俄,远东共和国继续向东扩展它的实际版图,并于1920年10月将其首都迁至赤塔。在1920年12月,Priamur和海洋地区(包括海参威)也被幷入了共和国。

Things didn’t continue smoothly however, as a Japanese backed coop formed by the white movement assumed control of Vladivostok on May 26th, 1921. The rebels formed a government, essentially under Japanese protection, lead by Spiridon Dionisovich Merkulov, and his brother Nikolai Merkulov, who was a successful businessman. Both were active participants in the white movement. The new “government” was declared to be the Provisional Priamur Government. The movement expanded north to Khabarovsk and Spassk. In June, 1922 the Japanese announced their plans to withdraw forces out of Russian territory. This caused a general panic in the region and Mikhail Diterikhs, one of Kolchak’s former Generals, disposed the Merkulov brothers and took control and renamed the area the Praimur Rural Province. General Diterikhs worked to unite and organize the last vestiges of anti-Bolshevik forces in the far east. Diterikhs also tried in vain to convince the Japanese to not withdraw their forces. When the Japanese completed their withdrawal in Oct, 1922, Diterikhs’ forces were quickly overrun by the far superior Russian Red army.

然而事情并没有顺利进行,因为白俄运动形成的日本支持的支持于1921年5月26日控制了海参威。反苏维埃者组建了一个政府,主要受日本保护,由斯宾洛顿-莫库洛夫和他的兄弟尼古拉-莫库洛夫领导,后者是一个成功的商人。两人都是白俄运动的积极参与者。新的“政府”被宣布为临时Priamur政府。该运动向北扩展到伯力和斯帕斯克。 1922年6月,日本宣布计划撤出俄罗斯领土。这引起了该地区的白俄普遍恐慌,高尔察克的前任将军之一米哈伊尔·迪特里克斯(Mikhail Diterikhs)处置了莫库洛夫兄弟,并取得了控制该地区并改名为Praimur 乡间省。 迪特里克斯将军努力团结并组织远东地区反布尔什维克部队的最后存在。迪特里克斯也徒劳地试图说服日本人不要撤军。当日本人于1922年10月完成撤军时,迪特里克斯的部队很快就被远远优势的俄罗斯红军击败。

With the Japanese army gone, the need for a buffer state disappeared, and on Nov. 19th, 1922, the Far Eastern Republic was dissolved and folded into the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. According to most historians, this ended the Russian Civil War.

随着日本军队的撤离,苏俄对缓冲国家的需求消失了,1922年11月19日,远东共和国解散并进入俄罗斯社会主义联邦苏维埃共和国。根据大多数历史学家的说法,这就是结束了俄罗斯内战。

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